Essay on the Joint of PSOE and UGT - One of the Most Important Events of the Socialist Movement During the Republic Ages

The joint of the PSOE and the UGT, where this declaration was expressed, was one of the most important events of the socialist movement during the Republic ages. We can see a radicalization of the movement defending the rise of the working class if the conditions thus reclaim it. Why happens this change, if the socialist until now had been opposed to any way that it was contrary to the law?

In the beginning the Socialist Party had born prearranged to the parliamentary and municipal action, although its puritanical character in the Marxist principles, prevented it an effective action in the politic. This situation suddenly change with the fall of Maura’s government thanks to the combined action of the opposite parties in 1909. The Socialist could seen that by a more active action in the politic scope, would obtain better results than its previous strict character. The Socialist’s challenge were of a more participation in the parliament and in the following years even a collaboration with the Primo de Rivera’s dictatorship. So, why happened this drastic change towards the rise option?

Its necessary to understand the politic and social context before of the elections of 1933. In the last months of the Socialist-Republic government, the coalition was in crisis. The scandal over the Casas Viejas affair, and the failure to put any serious measure of agrarian reform, made that the socialist move away to collaborate with the Left. This situation responds to the change in the core of the Socialist movement under the first years of the Republic. A new recruitment of a large number of small peasants, landless labourers and shop-employees class were added to the traditional Socialist affiliates: Builders, iron workers, miners… A new labour legislation, and the hopes in the government to made it, were important causes to the growing of the party.
But the participation of the PSOE in a government in which the Republican parties refused to treat agrarian reform seriously, made it to present to the elections alone.

It was a mistake. After the first shock of the forces of the Right with the fall of the monarchy, they had greatly strengthened themselves. And on the contrary than the last elections, the anarchist plead the abstention. The Left parties, with division among them couldn’t resist the consolidation of the Right forces. Although the difference in the elections between both, it wasn’t so much, the constitutional system made that in the representation in Córtes was bigger.

The victory of the Right in the ballot boxes means to the Socialist the invalided of the democratic system. The CEDA’s campaign against the Republic and the reforming projects, showed how can easily could manipulated the democracy. The ease with the employers evaded the provisions of the legislation, and the awareness of the fate of other democracies, like in Germany or Italy.

Moreover, Gil Robles talked openly about a corporative state establishment, with a first change of the Constitution, legally or if wasn’t possible, by other ways. In this situation, it was common the spread of rumours about a CEDA’s strikes from the government against the PSOE and UGT’s leaders. And the Right in the power foretold a return to the pre-republican position, annulling the actual degrees. Soon in the Socialist’s left wing began to grow the revolutionary option as unique way to get the social reforms. The rising tide of mass militancy thanks to the Right victory, pressured towards drastic solutions.

This new position of the Socialist Party and the UGT would challenge towards a tension atmosphere with the CEDA. In the next months, the worsening of the labourers conditions, with the Right measures from the government, in a precarious economic context, would carry the growing of the unemployed and the poverty among the low classes. The stronger consequence at shot time would be the rise of the working class led by the socialist in October of 1934, in some places of the territory.