Is There a Relationship Between Anti-Smoking Advertisements and Quitting Smoking?
Is There a Relationship Between Anti-Smoking Advertisements and Quitting Smoking?
Summary of selected articles
This paper will contain a brief and complete summary of five journal articles that have studied the relationship between anti-smoking advertising and quitting smoking. Also it will include objective, methods and the finding of the selected articles. I picked up this topic because I think that there is no best way to quit smoking because everyone has different smoking patterns. What works best for one person may have little impact on someone else. For this reason, the best smoking cessation programs nowadays are anti-smoking advertisements. “Recently in the United States, the main causes of mortality is tobacco use and more than 44000 deaths each year” (Netemeyer, Richard, Andrews, Craig , Burton & Scot, 2005). Smoking is a serious problem and we should pay a big attention to this issue . Finally, the research topic paper will identify research questions that are extracted from the selected articles.
Summary of selected articles
Erbas, Bircan, Bui, Quang, Huggins, Richard; Harper, Todd, White & Victoria (2006) have conducted a study “Investigating the relation between placement of Quit antismoking advertisements and number of telephone calls to Quitline: a semi-parametric modeling approach” from the period 1 August 2000 and 31 July 2001. I believe that anti-smoking advertisements and telephone calls to quitline are the most major strategies nowadays to stop smoking. These strategies can increase the awareness especially in young and teenager. The objective of this article was to model the relationship between placement of anti-smoking advertisements and calls to quitline on a given day. In this article anti-smoking advertisement, television target audience rating point (TARPS) and calls to quitline Victoria were studied. The result of the relation between total number of calls to quitline and total number of antismoking advertisements are basically based on semiparamertric models on a given day.
The approach of this article has captured the relation between daily total number of calls to the quitline and placement of antismoking advertisements in programs with different (TARPS) without explicitly modeling the variation over time. The authors found that the calls on Monday and Wednesday achieve the highest point by three times comparing with Sunday.
Siahpush, Mohammad; Wakefield, Melanie; Spittal, Matt; Durkin, Sarah (2007) have conducted a study “Antismoking television advertising and socioeconomic variations in calls to Quitline” from the period January 2001 to March 2004. The aim was to assess socioeconomic difference in mass media prompted seeking of help to quit in the state of Victoria, Australia. These campaigns increase the level of quit rates across adults of different education level and reduce the education gap in smoking prevalence. Some evidences show that the socioeconomic differentials in smoking are increasing in many countries.
During the period of the study, the outcome measure was Victorian quitline call volume which derived from administrative records of quit Victoria. Postcodes were provided by quitline callers who demanded a smoking quit pack.” The percentage of males was larger among those who asked for a Quit Pack compared to other callers (45% vs 38%). The number of households in postcodes in Victoria ranges from 22 to 19 230, with an average of 2566” (Siahpush et al, 2007). In this article, quit Victoria anti-smoking advertisements were divided in to three groups: No TARPs, medium (1–161 TARPs) and high (162–748 TARPs). During 169 weeks within 47520 calls to quitline the result was the percentage of calls from the first, second, third, fourth and fifth quintile of socioeconomic status, were 25.8, 18.1, 14.8, 17.0 and 24.3, in that order. During 88 weeks of the study there were no anti-tobacco television advertisements. In 42 weeks there was medium volume and in 39 weeks was the highest volume. Finally the authors found that they were lower quitline call rates among lower socioeconomic group ,that means the socioeconomic status and call rates were positively associated.
Netemeyer et al, 2005 have conducted a study of “Effects of Antismoking Advertising-Based Beliefs on Adult Smokers' Consideration of Quitting”. In this study there were two hypotheses. The first hypothesis was to assess whether specific antismoking advertising-based beliefs regarding the addictiveness of smoking, the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, and the deceptiveness tobacco industry's advertising were associated with people consideration of quitting smoking. The second hypothesis was to assess whether the number of children living in the home would act together with the three advertising based beliefs. “Recently in the United States , the main causes of mortality is tobacco use and more than 44000 deaths each year”( Netemeyer et al, 2005).Its a very huge number of deaths that altered committee in United States to take an action toward this issue, so they put 10 recommendations to help American to quit and reduce smoking. Media campaigns are one of the most important recommendations. Media campaigns are a critical aspect of tobacco control and play role in motivating parents to quit through messages stressing the health risks of smoking. These advertisements may affect smokers intent to quit because he\she will be aware of his\her own health and protect the health of their family members even if they unwilling to quit for sake of their health.
The methods used in this study were telephone survey toward adult smokers by the Wisconsin anti-tobacco media campaigns. “Telephone interviews were completed with 1207 adult residents of Wisconsin in late October to early November of 2001” (Netemeyer et al, 2005). To test the second hypothesis, the authors created product terms by multiplying each mean-centered advertising-based belief by mean-centered number of children. The result of the study for the first hypothesis is that the effects of the control variables, anti-smoking advertising-based beliefs would be associated with considering quitting. For the second hypothesis the advertising-based beliefs associated with the Wisconsin Anti-Tobacco Campaign would interact with number of children living in the household to produce a positive association with consideration of quitting.
Pechmann, Cornelia, MS, MBA, Reibling, Ellen & MA (2006) have conducted a study of “Antismoking Advertisements for Youths: An Independent Evaluation of Health, Counter-Industry, and Industry Approaches”. The purpose of this study was among adolescents. Anti-smoking advertisements that focus on victims suffering from smoking serious health effect will obtain more disgust than other advertisement types, will increase anti-industry motivation and will lower intention to smoke relative to the control condition. “Three types of ads fit this description: ads focusing on disease and suffering, ads focusing on a dying parent, and ads focusing on environmental tobacco smoke” (Pechmann et al, 2006). Randomized controlled trial or copy test was conducted in this article to examine the effectiveness of 8 types of antismoking advertisements in three common message themes: health, counter industry and industry approaches. A method used in this article was copy test. Authors created 14 videotapes each containing 10 or 11 advertisements. The participants were 1725 male and female of ninth grade students in spring 2002. The result was that Beliefs about the severity of the health risks of smoking and susceptibility to social and marketing pressures were positively associated with intent. Most of the personality traits authors measured were related with smoking intent, but conduct disorder was more strongly associated with intent than were the other traits. Among all participants, no ant-ismoking advertisement type lowered smoking intents against control condition.
Farrelly, Davis, Haviland, Messeri,& Healton,(2005) have conducted a study of “Evidence of a Dose—Response Relationship Between "truth" Anti-smoking Ads and Youth Smoking Prevalence” . The aim of this study was to assess whether there was a dose–response correlation between the level of exposure to the campaign and youth smoking occurrence during the first two years of the campaign. In my opinion, smoking is widespread among teen and the effective strategy for public health is the mass media campaign to prevent youth smoking. “This is the first study to evaluate the behavioral outcomes of the campaign”( Farrelly et al, 2005). Pre/post quasi-experimental design was used in this article that related changes in youth smoking prevalence to varied exposure to the campaign in the United States. From 1997-2002 ,this study used the monitoring the future( MTF) annual spring surveys to examine tobacco among youth. It was conducted by the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research that include around 18000, 17000, and 16000 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students on 420 public and private secondary schools per year. The finding indicate that between 1999-2002, the occurrence of smoking among students in all grades combined would have turned down by only 5.7 percentage points to 19.6% (95% CI = 18.6%, 20.6%) instead of the actual decline of 7.3 percentage points to 18.0% had the campaign not existed. Moreover, the total decline in youth smoking prevalence is attributable to the campaign about 22%, so the "truth" campaign was associated with major declines in youth smoking prevalence.
In conclusion, media campaigns are a critical aspect of tobacco control and play an important role in motivating parents, adults and youth to quit. Most of the findings of these selected articles are positive associated. My recommendation is that all the studies are conducted in western countries; There were no studies conducted in eastern countries. I really found that there were no specific studies that concentrate in anti-smoking advertising alone. I thought deeply about the research question. Finally a research question could be raised at: Is there a relationship between anti-smoking advertisements and quitting smoking?
Erbas, Bircan, Bui, Quang, Huggins, Richard; Harper, Todd, White & Victoria ( 2006). Investigating the relation between placement of Quit antismoking advertisements and number of telephone calls to Quitline: a semiparametric modeling approach, Journal of epidemiology and community health, 60,2,180-182. Retrieved September 15th,2008 from Ovid Database.
Farrelly, Davis, MA, Haviland, Messeri, PhD & Healton ( 2005). Evidence of a Dose—Response Relationship Between "truth" Antismoking Ads and Youth Smoking Prevalence . American Journal of public health, 95 , 3, 425-431. Retrived September 24th,2008 from: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/95/3/425.pdf
Netemeyer, Richard, Andrews, Craig , Burton & Scot (2005). Effects of Anti-smoking Advertising-Based Beliefs on Adult Smokers' Consideration of Quitting, American Journal of public health, 95,6,1062-1066. Retrived September 15th,2008 from Ovid Database.
Pechmann, Cornelia, MS, MBA, Reibling, Ellen & MA (2006). Anti-smoking Advertisements for Youths: An Independent Evaluation of Health, Counter-Industry, and Industry Approaches. American Journal of public health, 96,5,906-913 . Retrived September 15th,2008 from Ovid Database.
Siahpush, Mohammad, Wakefield, Melanie, Spittal, Matt & Durkin (2007). Anti-smoking television advertising and socioeconomic variations in calls to Quitline, Journal of epidemiology and community health,61,4,298-301, Retrived September 15th,2008 from Ovid Database.