Pressures of Taking Global Actions to Protect the Environment

The pressure of taking global actions to protect environment intensifies recently (Low, 993), so identifying which group of countries should make more efforts become important. Generally, developing countries contribute more than developed countries on environmental issues. One of the problems is deforestation, which can be explained by population increase and industrial activities development, and occurs most in developing countries. Another problem is greenhouse gas emissions, which is due to the rapid economic growth in developing country. It will become even more serious without control.

Deforestation is one of serious environmental issues, which can most due to the developing nations. There are two main reasons that can explain it.

The first reason is that population keep on increasing rapidly in developing countries (Bryant, Carver, Butler and Anage, 2009, p 853). According to Lucas (2003, p 3), the annual growth rate of population from 1990 to 2000 2.5% in Africa, 1.6% in Latin America, 1.5% in Asia, only 1.0%, in North America and 0.2 in Europe. The average rate of the world is 1.4%. Consequently, with the rapid population increase, people need more crops and livestock to meet their daily requirements, which means that more forests should be destroyed for agriculture (Lindsey, 2007, p 1). As well, urban extension which is also caused by population growth can lead to deforestation (Pauchard, Aguayo, Pena, Urrutia, 2006, p 274). From 1975 to 2000, In Concepcion, a city in Chile, the area which used to be cropland, forest and shrub land occupy the area which has been urbanised 45% (Pauchard, Aguayo, Pena, Urrutia, 2006, n.p.).

Next, another significant cause for deforestation is commercial activities in developing countries. For example, in Amazon, more forest destroyed for wood production in world mark, and in Indonesia, deforestation on Borneo and Sumatra results from commercial bio-fuel production (Lindsey, 2007, P2).

Therefore, forest depletion occur most in modernising countries. South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia are on the top list of deforestation (Lindsey, 2007, p 3). Especially, Uganda may loss all the natural forests without controlling by the end of this century (Bryant, Carver, Butler and Anage, 2009, p 854). From 1990 to 2005, the greatest area of deforestation appears in Brazil. It is 42,330,000 hectares, the same size as California (Lindsey, 2007, p 3). Following Brazil, other top 5 countries of destroying forest are Indonesia, Sudan, Myanmar and the Democratic Republic of Congo (Lindsey, 2007, p 3). By contrast, Forest will expand in Europe and remain stable in United State and Canada (FAO, 2009, pp.vii-xi).
Another harmful influence on environment in developing countries is emissions of greenhouse gases, which plays a key role in climate change. This problem is due to rapid economic growth (Gregg, Andres and Marland, 2008, p 2) in developing nations. More fossil energy sources such as coal and oil are consumed to support economic growth, so higher level of CO2 emissions, a kind of greenhouse gases, is produced during this process (Gregg, Andres and Marland, 2008, p 2). For instance, with amazing growth in gross domestic product (GDP), the industrial waste gas emissions in China rise from approximately 110 billion cubic meters to more than 530 billion cubic meters from 1994 to 2006 (Liu and Matsler, 2009, P30).In addition, international trade development as a important part of economic growth contributes to more emissions . Some factories in developing countries may use hazardous material to produce goods for other countries and create more greenhouse gases. Production for experts is responsible for one third of 1,700 million tons of CO2 emissions in China in 2005 (Liu and Matsler, 2009, P35).

More importantly, the problem of CO2 emissions will become deteriorate without any control in developing countries, especially in China. According to Campbell-Lendrum and Corvalan (2007, i110), thought per capita of emissions in China is lower than in China , China certainly over take United Station become the largest CO2 emissions country before 2010. The rate of emissions increase is at 10% annual growth, which means it may double again in less than nine years (Gregg, Andres and Marland, 2008, p 2). Furthermore, China as a developing country also is not required to achieve the emission reduction aims under the Kyoto Protocol (Gregg, Andres and Marland, 2008, p 4), which means this trend may not be control seriously.

In conclusion, developing countries should be responsible more than developed countries for environmental impacts. The reason is that deforestation caused by population growth and commercial activities increase is serious in developing countries, increase. As well, greenhouse gas emissions, which is due to rapid economic growth, continue getting worse in developing countries.

References
Bryant L., Carver L., Butler, C. D. and Anage A.2009, ‘Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda’, Bull World Health Organ, vol. 87, No. 11, pp. 852-857.

Campbell-Lendrum D. and Corvalan C. 2007, ‘Climate Change and Developing-Country Cities: Implications For Environmental Health and Equity’, Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, Vol. 84, No. 1 pp.i110-i117.

Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 2009, ‘State of the World’s Forests’, , pp.i-152.

Gregg J. S, Andrest R. J, and Marland G. 2008, ‘China: Emissions Pattern of the World Leader in CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption and Cement Production’, Geophysical Research Letter, Vol. 35, pp.1-5.

Lindsey R. 2007, ‘ Tropical Deforestation’, Nasa Eearth Observatory, Accessed 13 December 2010, , pp.1-5.

Liu J. and Matsler M. 2009, ‘China’s Environment and Globalization: Unexpected Connections’, In lee X. (ed) 2009 Lectures on China’s Environment. Report #20, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, accessed 14 December 2010, , pp.29-42

Low P., 1993, ‘Trade and the Environment: What Worries the Developing Countries’, Environmental Law.

Lucas P. 2003, ‘World Population Growth’, pp.1-5.

Pauchard A., Aguayo M., Pena E. and Urruta R. 2006, ‘Multiple Effects of Urbanisation on the Biodiversity of Developing Countries: The Case of a Fast-growing Metropolitan Area (Concepcion, Chile)’, Biological Conservation, Vol. 172, Issue 3. pp.272-281.