Paper on The Central Nervous System

Paper on The Central Nervous System

The central nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord and involves nerve impulses. The central nervous system is connected to all parts of the body from the peripheral nervous system. It sends stimuli to the peripheral nervous system which interprets it. The peripheral nervous system then initiates and responds. (Ophardt, C (2003). elmhurst college. Retrieved October 5, 2007, from Virtual Chembook Web site: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/661nervoussys.html).

The brain and spinal cord are the two parts of the central nervous system. The brain acts as a control center of the nervous system and is protected by the skull. The spinal cord is a thin tubular shaped bundle of nerves running from the medulla oblongata to the lumbar area. It has nerve fibres that move information to the limbs, trunks and organs. Spinal nerves do a similar job. The spinal nerves come out of the spinal cord and move information to the rest of the body from the spinal cord. Nerves such as cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral all take part in the process of moving information from the spinal cord to parts of the body which allows us to have the ability to move. The cervical nerves are located in the neck giving movement and feeling to your arms neck and upper trunk. Thoracic is in you upper back supplying you trunk and abdomen. Lumbar and sacral nerves are located in the lower back supplying your legs, bladder, bowel and sexual organs. (2003). Spinal cord Anatomy. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from Apparelyzed Web site: http://www.apparelyzed.com/spinalcord.html. The brainstem which connects the brain and spinal cord has two parts that are involved with the spinal cord pons and the medulla oblongata. The stem relays information between the peripheral nerves and the spinal cord to the upper parts of the brain. Pons relay information but between the cerebellum and cerebrum helping us to think and control our movements. The medulla Oblongata controls the autonomic functions as well as nerve signals going to and from the brain and spinal cord. These allow the brain to communicate with the body through the spinal cord telling a muscle what to do and when to do it. (December 1, 2006). Retrieved October 5, 2007, from the human central nervous system Web site: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/CNS.html#brain.

Reflexes are caused by the spinal cord. There are different kinds of reflexes such as the knee-jerk reflex and the withdrawal reflex. The knee jerk reflex is a familiar reflex usually tested at the doctors office during a physical. It only takes about 50 milliseconds between the doctors tap and the leg kick. Information is sent through a sensory neuron which travels to the spinal cord. After one synapse in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, the information id then send back down to the muscle which causes you leg to flex. The withdrawal reflex is caused by heat that stimulates temperature and pain receptors in the skin stimulating a sensory impulse to the central nervous system. The sensory neuron then synapses with interneuron that connects to the motor neurons. Some send motor impulses to the flexors to allowing you to remove your hand quickly. (Science and nature-Human body and mind. Retrieved October 8, 2007 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/reflexes/reflexes....)

There are many disorders that are involved with the central nervous system. These disorders such as anxiety, depression, Parkinson’s, Schizophrenia and Epilepsy are very serious disorders that affect people mentally and physically. Anxiety is an illness that includes feelings apprehension, tension or uneasiness. It can cause physical symptoms like sweating, palpitations or stress Phobias and panic attacks can occur. Anxiety and depression are similar. Depression can be caused by sadness and or disappointments. It does impair your ability to function normally in everyday situations. It affects peoples everyday lives because it changes moods, thoughts behaviors, and physical behavior. Parkinson’s affects the nerve cells in the brain that produce dopamine which is a neurotransmitter in part of the brain that directs and controls movement. The dopamine nerve cells break down causing levels to drop and brain signals that control movement to be come abnormal. This disorder does cause physical symptoms such as shaking in your hands, legs, arms, jaw and face an also. Slowness of movement and balance are also affects. (2002). Parkinson’s disease information. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from http://www.parkinsons.org/. Schizophrenia is a serious disabling brain disease. When people have this disease they hear voices that other people do not hear or believe that people are reading there mind, controlling there thoughts or trying to hurt them. Speech and behavior can be disorganized. When having this disease people try to take there own lives frequently. 30 to 40% of people with schizophrenia attempt suicide, but only 10% of these people die. Epilepsy is a group of disorders that involves recurrent seizures, which are sudden, transient disturbances of electrical activity in the brain that disrupts normal neurological functioning. (Central nervous system disorders. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from NPS Pharmaceuticals Web site: http://www.npsp.com/drug_development/ta_cns.php)

The central nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord and involves nerve impulses. These nerves travel up and down the spinal cord transmitting information through the body to parts that need to react. Stimuli is sent to the peripheral nervous system from the central nervous system which interprets it. The peripheral nervous system then initiates and responds. Unfortunately from this system there are many disorders that affect people in ways that they can’t act normal.

(2003). Spinal cord Anatomy. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from Apparelyzed Web site: http://www.apparelyzed.com/spinalcord.html

Science and nature-Human body and mind. Retrieved October 8, 2007 from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/reflexes/reflexes....)

Central nervous system disorders. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from NPS Pharmaceuticals Web site: http://www.npsp.com/drug_development/ta_cns.php)

Ophardt, C (2003). elmhurst college. Retrieved October 5, 2007, from Virtual Chembook Web site: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/661nervoussys.html).

(2002). Parkinson’s disease information. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from
http://www.parkinsons.org/

(December 1, 2006). Retrieved October 5, 2007, from the human central nervous system Web site: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/CNS.html#brain

(2003). Spinal cord Anatomy. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from Apparelyzed Web site: http://www.apparelyzed.com/spinalcord.html

(Science and nature-Human body and mind. Retrieved October 8, 2007 from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/reflexes/reflexes....)

(Central nervous system disorders. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from NPS Pharmaceuticals Web site: http://www.npsp.com/drug_development/ta_cns.php)

(2002). Parkinson’s disease information. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from
http://www.parkinsons.org/

(December 1, 2006). Retrieved October 5, 2007, from the human central nervous system Web site: http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/CNS.html#brain