Lighting Design of Three-Dimensional Animation

Lighting Design of Three-Dimensional Animation

Animation is a series of continuous playback screen, resulting in continuous changes to the visual picture. Its basic principles like the film and television, they are all vision principle. The role and status of lighting design in animation, like film, television, theater and other visual arts, they are very all important and it is an essential link in the works of the creative process.
In 1831, the French Joseph Antoine Plateau put many picture in sequence on a disc of machine, and disc can be driven by rotation in the machine. This machine also has an observation window, to watch the activities of photo quality. Driven by the machine, the disc slowly rotates, and the picture on the disc along with the disk rotation. View from the observation window, picture seems to move up and forming a moving picture. This is the prototype of the original animation.
Twenties post-war Europe, the emergence of various ideas. Filmmaker concerned about is how to reshape the film form. They try to introduce new concepts much more than aesthetic technology development, and then, the visual arts have had a great impact, including the animated film production.
When the European animation development to the direction of avant-garde, a completely different sport, but a rise in the United States. From the character creation and skills test in early animation, and enter the so-called 'golden age of American cartoon' Since 1920s, Disney studios began to develop the popular cartoon animation, and animation artists have enough time, enough space to do the painting training, subject matter discussed, mass entertainment film analysis. Because a lot of pay, effectiveness and impact of universally recognized, and every modern animation technology, where most of invented or thought out. After the American animation obtain world-wide reputation, the European animator unable or unwilling to copy their style. American animation included naive visual effects, American animation visual effects included naive, clear and easy to understand jokes humor, and coherent technical performance, constitute a strong independent animation style. They rarely criticize a failure of humanity, social status, or psychological entanglements, about world events left to politicians and writers to deal with. As long as these films to go along with mass popular, form and content not be too complicated, the movie's morality is very simple, good will overcome evil. Disney animation focuses on the performance of three-dimensional space and realistic representation.
Russian animation master's work is to use simple lines and color to the performance, almost all flat visual effects, but not too much taking into account space, perspective, light.
Lighting design in the field of animation to get a more rapid development ,after the emergence of three-dimensional technology. When the animation as an industry, its production process and division of labor is more perfect and delicate. Set lighting has become an essential production processes.
With the three-dimensional technology continues to develop and update, have reached the effect of simulated real-world, light in the three-dimensional animation beyond the film standard lighting effects, and more randomness and flexibility.
First, basic form of lighting in the three-dimensional animation.
1. Light Type in three-dimensional animation:
① Point source lighting: from the light source position to the average exposure in all directions, like candlelight and incandescent light emitted. Because the light source is characterized by the average emission of light in all directions, In the three-dimensional widely used in the field of basic lighting, up lighting.
② Spotlight: Spotlight in a conical area in the average emission of light, is a most widely used a lamp in three-dimensional animation, it can adjust the parameters, and then reached the stage lighting optical properties such as spotlights, astigmatism lights, halogen lamp, back light, imaging, beam lights, computer lights, a series of slides, etc.
③ Parallel light source lamp: Parallel light evenly transmit light in one direction; its rays are mutually parallel, using parallel light to mimic a very distant point source. Three-dimensional animation, the parallel light is mainly used with daylight illumination, To do basic lighting in outdoor, because it is the ideal case of lamps, light is parallel, can be simulated sunlight.
④ Ambient light: Ambient light exposure in two ways. Some light from the light position light evenly in all directions (like a point source), the other light incident equally from all directions. Using ambient light to mimic the parallel light (such as the sun) and non-directional light (sunlight to generate diffuse light in the atmosphere, or lamp light reflected on the walls.
⑤ Area Lights: area light is a two-dimensional rectangle light source. You can use it to mimic the rectangular projection of the windows on the surface.
2. Basic properties of light in three-dimensional animation:
① Brightness: If you want to change the brightness of the light and adjust the light Intensity (strength) properties ,brightness can be set to negative, in three dimensions, its role is to play the "black light", meaning to achieve the opposite effect with the light, light by light objects are not lit, but "dark play".
② Color: If you want to change a light color, adjust the lights Color (color) properties. Because it is digital simulation of the light color, so the hue and saturation can be achieved only in theory can reach the standards, lamps can also simulate some of the daily loss of light and color loss, to achieve real results. You can also add texture in the color properties, equivalent to a projection lamp.
③ Attenuation of brightness and color: If the cone of light illuminated area in the region, the brightness of the light in the center of the cone will be the brightest, however, when close to the edge, the brightness of the light will be attenuated. We can set the brightness and color decay Spotlight, adjustable light attenuation.
④ Lamp placement and projection orientation: in three-dimensional space, lights can be placed in any location, and stage lighting are often limited by physical location.
⑤ Beam angle of spotlight: If you want to change a Spotlight beam angle adjustment Cone Angle property on it. In three dimensions, range and angle of light projection is more casual.
⑥ Projection patterns: much like imaging light of the stage. In three dimensions, it can cast any form of spot.
⑦ Shadow: In three dimensions, you can set the light onto the object's shadow on the shed, and you can optionally set the shadow color, brightness, color saturation.
⑧ Volume fog: also known as volume light, the equivalent light curtains in the stage, light beam effect. Volume can be used to represent the sun, and fog effect, such as two lenses in "DINOSAUR”.
Second, the lighting design in three-dimensional animation.
1. The triangle is the most basic way of lighting, which uses three light sources.
① Main light: Used to illuminate most of the scenes, often cast shadows, as basic lighting.
② Auxiliary light: often on one side of the camera, used to illuminate the dark, the main light did not shine; control the contrast, the brightest region in the scene and the darkest areas.
③ Backlight: Used to separate the object from the background, and demonstrate the depth of the scene, often after the top of the object, and the strength equal to or less than the main light.
2. Section lighting method: In a large scene, lighting can be used section of the lighting method. The big scene into several small sections, sections can be selected using the basic triangle after the lighting method.
Of course, in the section of the law should also pay attention to lighting and the actual situation of primary and secondary relationships, between small areas.
Third, the performance style of animation lighting design.
Animation genre determines the performance style of the animation lighting design. Animation schools can be divided into the following categories:
1. Ultra-realistic animation
As digital technology continues to update, continue to penetrate the three-dimensional animation and film, is an important branch of the animation. For instance, we see a lot of scientific and educational films, such as the BBC and the like. There late in the film and television roles, scene. Such as , , , and so on. In this part of the genre in the treatment of light is also close to the film in light of the approach.
In< Matrix Animated >, in character modeling, texture performance, the role of the action, making a scene, lighting the atmosphere, etc., have been dealing with the real movie is no different. Because in traditional animation, we easily find, there will always be dealing with some dark reflective color, not black. My analysis for two reasons: First, the main audience of traditional animation is children. Therefore, the performance practices are exaggerated and anthropomorphic. In the choice of subject matter sun and fun, so it will not make the dark too dark or black, giving a visual fatigue. Second, the wrong idea. In three-dimensional animation, character performance, the scene of color, shape, and the atmosphere is very important, because it involves the cost of rendering the issue.
As well as Japan's movie, also belong to the ultra-realistic category.
2. Romantic Animation
Emphasize the contrast of light colors, coordination, ignoring the real objects by light. Such as DreamWorks's , large surface brightness, color contrast between, gave the audience a strong visual experience. Performance in light perception, was very successful. The performance of arbitrary color is the advantage of two-dimensional animation.
3. Cartoon performance animation.
From the Japanese cartoon expression, relatively fixed lighting model, emphasizing the coordination of the screen their own light, the light source is not considered.
Fourth, the stage lighting design in the use of three-dimensional animation.
1. Lighting type of stage lighting design.
① Lighting the light: the direction from the viewer's angle of light, the equivalent of the main light in "three-point lighting". It is used as the basic stage lighting.
② Modeling light: not from the perspective of the viewer direction of light, in stage lighting design, modeling light is very common use, is a type of light, shape and performance of a particular character role play scenarios. Because it is not the conventional type of lighting, the angle of light projection, by the light and the backlight contrast and color contrast, resulting in a strong visual impact.
③ Stained light: light rendering space atmosphere. Stage lighting in the dyeing of light I think it can be divided into two parts, one of the objects by the light staining; the second is for space dyeing. On the stage, used for simulation light patterns of natural, such as sunrise, sunset, glow, moon, and so on. Is also used outside the role of emotions, then, the story makes it sound.
④ Key light: light focus on characterization, commonly used in multiple figures simultaneously appears on the primary and secondary, the distinction between actual situation and characterization. That resulted in the same scene, or light between the role and the role of King and the relationship between the contrasts.
⑤ Background light: in the stage lighting canopy area, resulting in the background proscenium stage
⑥ Special effects: include slide projector, light imaging grating, and so on.
2. Light control on the changes and transitions.
① Technology: Stage, control brightness, color, rhythm and other factors is the stage for the dimming equipment. However, three-dimensional animation, as long as the key frame set by light can be easily done on the various properties of light control.
② Design: As dramatic performances in a fixed space (the stage) was carried out, Through the transformation of stage set and lighting make the audience feel the time, place different, in this virtual space and time manipulation stage lighting design has more space for development.
③ The theatrical form of application in three-dimensional animation.
Traditional animation in the choice of subject matter, very close to the film and television themes, since they are all derived from visual principles, whether movies or animations. With the third eye - the lens view of the world, traditional animation in the choice of material and to determine the work style that are confined within this framework.
Now imagine what would, if a drama in three-dimensional animation in the "performance"?
In fact, several years ago, already has a similar theatrical animated shorts appeared. That is, Alias | Waterfront’s made a three-dimensional animated short "bingo", on the Maya V1.0 product demonstration.
This video in scenery, lighting and performances are very close and dramatic terms.
However, "the form of theatrical staging," the animation genre has not yet formed. I think this will be a new issue, which we need to develop and explore.
Because the drama to today has been for hundreds of years of history, its wealth of cultural treasures and profound theoretical basis for the film, animation and other art forms can not be compared, surrealist drama, brutal drama, existential drama, theatre of the absurd, it becomes morn and morn popular. In selected subjects, forms, director approach, room scheduling, screening of the conversion, creating the mood, rhythm, body language and other actors, for animation, it is worth learning.
In summary, in three-dimensional animation, lighting design is the key depends on animation genre and performance style. The form of three-dimensional animation gradually move toward diversification, performance space of lighting design has become increasingly widespread in the three-dimensional animation.