Intensive Aromatic Interventions - An Essay on Aromatherapy



In this essay; the author would like to examine the comparisons between the French and British approaches in their application, education and regulations of essential oils. The author would also like to include a selection of intensively applied aromatic treatments and the outcomes of clients who attended Napier University Student Lead Clinics.

It is important to compare the many differences between the two countries to be able to move aromatherapy forward in Britain and be more accepted by the medical professions and take away the idea that essential oils are only useful for the perfume and beauty industries. Although essential oils are an important part of the perfume and beauty industry and are still required there is a definite place in health care and medicine for aromatherapy.
A better understanding of the intensive approach used by French physicians will help to incorporate aromatherapy into Western medicine.


R. Gattefossѐ, J. Valnet, M. Maury and P.Belaiche are primarily responsible for introducing and developing the use of essential oils for their therapeutic properties in the health and beauty fields

Rene Gattefossѐ, a French chemist, first coined the word “aromatherapy” when he rediscovered the healing properties of Lavender oil by accident after burning his arm (Buckle 2002 pp81-99).Gattefossѐ placed his arm in a vat of Lavender oil instead of what he thought was water at the time of the accident and noticed its healing effects on the wound (Anisman-Reiner 2007 p1). Gattefossѐ frequently applied the Lavender oil to his burns and found they healed without leaving scars, this lead Gattefossѐ to research the therapeutic benefits of essential oils (Close 2008). In his book Gattefossѐ Aromatherapy, he suggests that French physicians have been using essential oils dating back to 1915 (Buckle 2002 pp81-99).

Jean Valnet, a French physician, who was employed with the French army during World War 2 began using essential oils on wounded soldiers, when his supply of antibiotics ran out and found the oils to have a positive effect on infections (Close 2008 p1). Valnet further studied other effects of essential oils and found that they also contained anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-microbial properties that could be used in other medical conditions such as arthritis and bronchitis (Buckle 2002 pp81-99). Jean Valnet’s book “The practice of Aromatherapy,” which was first published in 1964 lead to the increase in popularity of modern day aromatherapy (Schnaubelt 1999 p4).

Marguerite Maury, an Austrian nurse, working in France studied Valnet’s work and became interested in how the essential oils could benefit skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis (Buckle 2002 pp81-99). Maury developed the “individual prescription“ theory of blending essential oils in a treatment based on an individual’s own needs, which could help skin heal before and after surgery (Buckle 2002 pp81-99). Maury used the oils blended in vegetable oils, created for the individuals personal needs and used massage for the application method of the oils (Bensouilah 2005 pp134-140).

Paul Belaichѐ, chief of the phytotherapy department at the University of Paris carried out extensive in-vitro research on the benefits of essential oils of thyme, clove, oregano, cinnamon and tea tree and found they have great anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties (Close 2008 p1). Belaichѐ published a three volume study of the clinical uses of aromatherapy for the treatment of infectious and generative illnesses (Schnaubelt 1999 p8).

Pierre Franchomme, a chemist and Daniel Penoѐl, a M.D. carried on the tradition of medical aromatherapy in France with the publication of their book “L’aromatherapie exactment,” this book contains scientific knowledge of the chemical constituents of essential oils. The authors use this scientific knowledge in a holistic way to treat a client in a synergistic way (Schnaubelt 1999 pp5-6).

There are many methods of application of essential oils used in France. These include the following, topical (trans- cutaneous) or external (trans-dermal), inhalation (trans-pulmonary/ respiratory), internal (trans-digestive) or oral ingestion (gastro-intestional), rectal and vaginal (trans-mucosal)(Anon 2008).

The use of suppositories and gelatine capsules are widely used for internal application in France, allowing the oils to reach the required site that the treatment is needed. Using the oils in suppository form permit the oils to be absorbed in the veins, bypassing the liver so that no metabolism takes place, therefore no lipophilic qualities are lost (Schnaubelt 1996 pp96-97). Taken essential oils orally are also an effective way to administer the capsuls, although the oils are absorbed by the mouth, throat, oesophagus, stomach and duodenum as they are being digested and will be metabolized, some of their lipohilic qualities will be lost. The oils will still have powerful effects on the urinogentital tract, therefore giving them valuable interaction with the liver or kidney (Schnaubelt 1996 p96).

The aromatogram was developed by Maurice Girault to test the validity of the anti-microbial properties of essential oils. The aromatogram is used in the same way as the antibiogram which tests the validity of an antibiotic agent. The tests involve taking germs from the individual to be treated and growing the culture in a petri dish and finding which essential oil will counteract the particular germ. The aromatogram has also identified anti-septic properties in oils that may not have been identified previously (Price & Price 2007 p86).

There is a substantial amount of research been conducted in France. Most of which is on anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effects, not all of this research is published in the international databases (Price & Price 2007 p356).


Aromatherapy as practiced in Britain today was introduced in the 1960’s by Marguerite Maury (Bensouilah 2005 pp134-140). Maury along with her husband who specialised in acupuncture and homeopathy explored ways of “natural healing” and opened clinics in Paris, Switzerland and London (Bensoulah 2005 pp134-140). During her studies of the work done by Dr Jean Valnet, Maury applied his research findings to her field of “beauty therapy” (Lawless 2002 p16). Maury’s “individual prescription” theory has influenced the British development of aromatherapy in applying essential oils externally to treat the body and mind in an holistic way while also being used for their therapeutic properties (Bensouilah 2005 pp134-140).

Aromatherapy in Britain is mainly promoted as an external therapeutic therapy, and usually applied by massage or in cosmetics. This style of Anglo-Saxon application is seen as a “soft” therapy by other European Countries (Harris 2003 pp9-17). The practice of aromatherapy has changed in recent years as there is an increasing interest by nurses and other health care professionals to integrate aromatherapy into the health care service (Harris 2003 pp9-17).

During the 1970’s and 1980’s there was an awareness of the health benefits of essential oils and using these as natural therapies that has now become known as Complementary and alternative medicine (Bensouilah 2005 pp134-140).

In the early 1970’s Robert Tisserand published his book “ The art of Aromatherapy” which was around the same time that Jean Valnet’s book was translated into English. Tisserand’s book was the first British book to combine a medical approach to aromatherapy and to describe the use of essential oils medically (Schnaubelt 1999 p4).

British aromatherapy keeps evolving and is exploring the French approach of “Aromatic Medicine” to apply essential oils more intensively and in higher concentrations, which can be used externally and internally to target the cause of infection and pain more rapidly. This raises questions of regulations and education in Britain (Jenkins 2006 pp85-86).

Application methods of essential oils in Britain are usually external or inhalation. Essential oils are lipid soluble and quickly penetrate through the skin into the bloodstream when applied by these methods. The oils are then excreted either through the urinary system or expiration (CO2) (Maddocks-Jennings & Wilkinson 2004 pp93-103). Metabolism is a contributing factor on the influence of essential oil constituent activity prior to excretion, this is dependent on the function of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (Maddocks-Jennings & Wilkinson 2004 pp93-103).

There is much anecdotal research evidence on aromatherapy and not many well designed trials conducted in Britain (Wheeler Robins 1999 pp5-17). to support the use of this practice in a clinical setting more evidence base practice is needed. Databases such as The Medline, CINAHL and EBSCO host provide published journals including aromatherapy research in the health care sector (Maddocks-Jennings & Wilkinson 2004 pp93-103).


There are many training schools in the U.K. offering qualifications in aromatherapy. These training establishments include private schools, colleges of further education and universities (Price & Price 2007 pp335-336). Not all courses provided offer practitioner qualifications and it is up to the individual to decide which route they wish to follow.

A beginners course in aromatherapy is ideal if an individual only wants to practice on family and friends or is interested in essential oils for personal use. The beginners course is also valuable as a taster session if an individual is unsure if they want to study aromatherapy as a career, otherwise it is important to choose a course that is benchmarked by the National Occupational Standards for aromatherapy and complies with the Aromatherapy Councils core curriculum (Anon 2008).

Educational training in aromatherapy has greatly improved in standards over the previous 10 years, and it is now imperative that all practicing aromatherapists, no matter what employment setting they are working in are trained in the chemical constituents of essential oils and their effects on human organisms (Price & Price 2007 p334).

The aromatherapy council (previously known as the Aromatherapy organisations councils) was originally formed in 1991 due to the increased use of essential oils in hospitals and G.P. referrals. Health care professionals raised concerns about the training standards, codes of conduct and practice standards, which lead to the need for a single body for the practice of aromatherapy (Baker 1997 pp77-80).

The AC are a lead body for professional aromatherapists and held a meeting in 1990 with other aromatherapy organisations to discuss the needs of a governing body for aromatherapy and to explore the possibility and benefits of statutory regulations for individuals practicing aromatherapy because at the moment regulation and registration is voluntary in the U.K (Anon 2008).

The aromatherapy core curriculum training standards was developed by the AC as a result of consultations between various aromatherapy associations, awarding bodies and aromatherapy professionals to provide a framework of standards for courses/programmes that lead to professional qualifications in the practice of aromatherapy. The AC have set minimum course content to be followed to ensure that students are safe and competent practitioners when they complete the course (Anon 2008).

The AC sets out rules of attendance in respect of hours to be studied by the student to enable them to be registered. It usually insists that students attend at least 80% of the scheduled class time (Anon 2008). It is recommended that a diploma in aromatherapy is usually studied over several months and usually consists of 250hrs (Bensouilah 2005 pp134-140).

The core curriculum should be read in conjunction with the National Occupational Standards and may be changed from time to time if there are any legal, safety or ecological issues raised that need to be addressed. The curriculum was last updated in November 2006 (Anon 2008).

The National Occupational Standards was developed in conjunction with the AOC before it was dissolved in 2003, but still works together with the AC on structures and policies for a U.K. regulatory body for aromatherapy (Price & Price 2007 p336). Aromatherapy courses funded by the government must meet the NOS standards and are checked by the AC. Degree courses in aromatherapy must also comply with the minimum competences set out in the NOS (Price & Price 2007 p337).

The NOS can be used by tutors as a basis for designing curricula and training courses, and for individual aromatherapists to check their own personal performance in their practice and for employers to use for job descriptions. The NOS may also be used for research and designing marketing strategies (Baker 2004 p57).

A complementary and alternative report was published in November 2000 by the House of Lords select committee on Science and technology. They have called for tighter regulation of therapies and therapists and want more evidence based research to support aromatherapy as it is no longer sufficient for therapeutic practices to rely on anecdotal evidence and history of use. The report from the Science and technology grouping placed aromatherapy in to group 2 for therapies that complement conventional medicine but do not diagnose (Bensouilah 2005 pp134-140).

Regulation of aromatherapy products and aromatherapists is a very complex issue in the U.K. In October 1996 The Local Authorities Co-ordinating body on Food and Trading Standards (LACOTS), issued a product safety advice on aromatherapy products. LACOTS state that it is impossible to categorize aromatherapy products into medicines or cosmetics but must be considered on an individual basis depending on its function and ingredients (Baker 2002).

In section 12(1) of the medicines act 1968 allows an individual to make, sell and supply a herbal remedy without licensing under certain conditions. One such condition is that as long as a full face to face consultation with a client has been done a treatment can take place provided it falls within the definition of a herbal remedy (Baker 2002 pp60-61).

However the retail sale of aromatherapy products does not fall under the same exemptions and no reference to a medical condition or treatment can be made and are sold to the general public under the cosmetics (safety) regulations (Baker 2002 pp60-61).

The Aromatherapy Trade Council (ATC) was set up by the AC by essential oil suppliers, which addressed issues of public safety. The ATC are now an independent body and has been appointed the Advertising Code Administers by the Medicines Control Agency (Department of Health) (Baker 1997 pp77-80).


If the use of essential oils is carried out in an appropriate and sensible method, there should be no complications or danger of harm to the client (Shnaubelt 1998 p43). A fully competent and knowledgeable aromatherapist will be aware of the toxicity and potential risks of certain oils and would be able to apply these oils at the correct concentrations to be beneficial to the client’s needs, but would also know when to avoid using these oils. The aromatherapist would also know what client’s not to use these hazardous oils on.

Although most essential oils are considered to be safe, there are essential oils that can be harmful and fatal. There have been deaths reported when oils have been taken orally. These oils have been taken at high doses but not necessarily over long periods of time (Tisserand 1995 pp26-29).

Oils containing ketones and phenols should be used with caution (Schnaubelt 1998 p43). Essential oils containing a high percentage of thujone or camphor for example can be neurotoxic and have abortive effect. Oils containing moderate to low ketone content can be used with care, although not suitable for children (Schnaubelt 1998 pp43-45). Supported by (Tisserand 1996 pp26-29). Care must especially be taken with epilepsy sufferers (Tisserand 1995 pp26-29). Essential oils with a phenol content such as carvacrol and eugenol for example can cause liver toxicity and skin irritation , this is dependent on dose, administration and frequency of use(Schnaubelt 1998 pp46-47). Supported by (Basketter.D.A. et al 2004 pp1-4).

Skin irritation and sensitization are also a cause for concern when using topical application of essential oils and using oils containing eugenol are not recommended for external use (Basketter.D.A. et al 2004 pp1-4). Prolonged use of an essential oil may increase the risk of skin sensitization and irritation, and may cause rashes and allergies to the oils concerned. These reactions can last for many years even after the termination of use (Price & Price 2007 p65).

Schnaubelt 1998 suggests that essential oils containing ketones should not be used by children, pregnant or nursing mothers. Tisserand 1995 suggests that there is evidence that components of essential oils can pass through the placenta, but that it does not mean a risk to the fetus and that it will depend on the oils high content of toxicity and the plasma concentration.

Consideration of the interaction of essential oils with conventional drugs must be taken into account when deciding which oils to use on a client, it would not be wise to use an oil that is known for its stimulant effects if the client has been prescribed a sedative pill by their G.P. or to use an antigoagulant oil if the client has been prescribed warferin by the G.P. Prescribed medication can also interact with the effects of essential oils and may reduce the metabolism of the oil molecules (Price & Price 2007 p130).

The safe storage and handling of essential oils is of the upmost importance to prevent the oxidisation and contamination of the oils (Maddocks-Jennings & Wilkinson 2004 pp93-103). It is also imperative to buy genuine and authentic oils for therapeutic purposes. Knowledge of where the plant was grown, if the plant was grown from cuttings (cloning) or seeds, if the plant was grown wild, organically or with chemicals. Also important to know is what chemotypes are present within the oil and what the Latin name for each oil this will help to select the correct oil with the correct chemotype (Price & Price 2007 p46).

Having confidence in the supplier of the essential oil is a must to ensure that the oils purchased have not been adulterated in any way by the manufacturer. Sometimes manufacturers will add cheaper oils to genuine oils or synthetics to the oils as a way of mass production to meet the demands of the consumer for profit purposes (Price & Price 2007 p46).

The quality of essential oils can be measured for purity by a variety of machines that analyse the oil characteristics and composition. The most common ones used are the Gas chromatography, this machine is used for routine quality checks on essential oils. The high performance liquid chromatography machine is very powerful and is a useful tool for essential oil analysis. The Mass spectrometry appliance this appliance allows identification of chemical structures. The combined use of the Enantio-selective gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass-spectometry machines produce the best assessment of authenticity of essential oil (Scnaubelt 1999 pp150-152).


There are several learning establishments in France offering different levels of training in aromatherapy, and too different health care professionals. The training offered varies in the depth and duration for the separate professions learning aromatherapy. Aromatherapy is known as phytotherapy in France and forms part of the herbal medicine studies that include herbal extracts training alongside essential oil training(Price & Price 2007 p355).
The Bobigny University in Paris is the main centre of Natural medicine and offers two courses. One course is designed for doctors, who are known as naturothѐrapeutes to make a distinction between naturopaths. This is a a 3 year diploma course and the hours of study are 252. The second course offered is for Osteopaths, Kinѐsithѐrapeutes (massage therapists), Midwives, Nurses and Pharmacy personnel (Price & Price 2007 p355).

Montpellier University also offers two phyto-aromatherapy courses which involve a study duration of two years, and consists of six weekend of training or one year which comprises of two blocks of study lasting for ten days(Price & Price 2007 p355).

The Institute Mѐditerranѐen de Documentation d’ Ensignement et de Recherche sur les Plantes Mѐdicinales (MDERPLAM) offers aromatherapy training aimed at non-medical practitioners. This course is done over three years which contains a total of 24 hours of aromatherapy training over three weekends (Price & Price 2007 p356).

The Lyonnaise School of Medicinal Plants also offers two training programmes usually to doctors or paramedics, but will include other individuals. Applied aromatherapy is offered over a three year weekend duration and Herboristene (herbalism) is offered over a three year period (Price & Price 2007 p356). The amount of hours for this establishment is unknown.

Hippocratus college provides training for medical personnel in phyto-aromatherapy by e-learning. Distance learning is widely accepted in France and the course is over a two year duration and includes 300 hours of study (Price & Price 2007 p356).

In France only trained pharmacologists or doctors may prescribe treatments using essential oils (Jenkins 2006 pp85-88). French physicians prescribe the use of essential oils more intensively and in higher concentrations internally or externally. The doctors or physicians will use the essential oils alongside or instead of conventional antibiotics. The essential oils are also used undiluted (Buckle 2002 pp81-99).

In France the law states that if massage is to be performed then it must be done by a Kinѐsithѐrapeute practitioner (physiotherapist). These physiotherapists can legally practice aromatherapy in the English style and hold a state recognised diploma. Otherwise it is illegal for a non-medical individual to use essential oils for therapeutic reasons without a licence (Price & Price 2007 pp354-355).

Aromatherapy practitioners from other European Union Countries do not have an automatic right to practice this therapy in France even if they hold the appropriate qualifications and will only be able to perform a facial massage for beauty purposes (Price & Price 2007 p355).

In the future it is hoped that with more collaboration with other EU Countries the French legal system may become a bit more flexible, as in spite of the laws stated there are still many non-medical personnel performing massage and application of essential oils to the public, due to the request for these therapies other than for allopathic reasons (Price & Price 2007 p355).

Client Information

Client A, is a 45 year old male. He is married and has two grown sons. Client A, is a financial advisor and also works part time as a Customer Service Representative. Client A presented with post operative pain and inflammation when he attended the clinic. This was due to having a Micro disc ectomy three weeks prior to attendance at the clinic.

Client had suffered back pain for five years due to trapped nerves in the lumber region of the spine. During September 2008 client had the micro disc ectomy to release the trapped nerves in the spine which were causing pain and discomfort to him. Client A’s G.P prescribed ibuprofen at 200mg, with 1-2 tablets to be taken when required. The client was also refered to a physiotherapist by the G.P and will be attending the physiotherapist every three weeks. The physiotherapist gave client exercises to do at home. There are no other health concerns for the client.

Glaude Bechamp developed a theory of the terrain. Bechamp suggests that if an individual “maintains a healthy lifestyle” then their immune system will be strengthened and the individual would be less susceptible to germs (Anon 2008).

The aims of this intensive treatment were to provide pain relief and reduce the inflammation and redness of scar tissue. Long term aims are to support the clients terrain by enhancing his immune system to prevent any infections that may occur due to the wound.

At the clinic A, was given a rollerball to be applied at home. This method was selected as it would be easier for a member of the clients family to apply the blend to the wound area, as due to position of wound it would be difficult for client to apply himself.

Client was advised to apply the rollerball blend twice a day (morning/evening) to wound area to help relieve the pain and accelerate the wound healing process. Further advice to client was to cover area with a gauze/bandage after application to ensure absorption (occulation).


9-drops- Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) for its anti-inflammatory (β-Carophyllene)(Price & Price 2007 pp385-477), analgestic (linalool) (Prasher.A. et al 2004 pp221-229)anti-infectious (geraniol) and anti-spasmodic (linalyl acetate) properties (Price & Price 2007 pp385-477).

5-drops- Sweet marjoram ( Origanum majorana) for its analgesic (linalool), anti-infectious (citral) and anti-inflammatory (β-carophyllene) properties (Price & Price 2007 pp385-477).

3-drops- Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens) for its anti-infectious (geraniol), and anti-inflammatory (carophyllene) properties (Price & Price 2007 pp385-477).

3-drops- Bergamot ( Citrus bergamia) for its analgesic (linalyl acetate) and anti-infectious (geraniol) properties (Price & Price 2007 pp385-477).


5mls Rosehip seed oil for its skin regeneration properties ie wounds and scars.
5mls Evening primrose oil to help wound healing process (Price & Price 1999 pp73-123).

This was an intensive approach as the high concentration of oils and selected carrier oils used were applied direct to the wound area to target the pain and inflammation, enhancing pain relief and the carrier oils used were to accelerate the wound healing (Price & Price 1999 pp73-123).


This was a successful intensive treatment, which I believe to be due to a combination of three things. These are client compliance, the relevant selection of oils for clients individual needs and clients positive outlook on life. The client stopped taken the ibuprofen after four weeks and the wound was very clean and inflammation was reduced along with the redness of the scar tissue.

Client B, is a 23 year old female. She is single and is a full time student who works part time as a sales assistant in a perfume shop.Client B, presented with three herpes simplex 1 viral lesions, one on the upper lip and two on the lower lip when she attended the clinic.

The viral infections started approximately five years ago at exam time when client was studying at college. Although client has recurring bouts of the virus, this is the first time that she has suffered three at the same time. A week prior to the lesions appearing client had suffered a very bad cold and felt very tired and had a loss of concentration.

The aims of the treatment were to provide fast pain relief and to heal the lesions as quickly as possible.

Client B, was given a jar of aloe vera gel blended with the essential oils to apply to the lesions three times a day to start with then reduce when required. Client was advised to apply the blend with a cotton bud to avoid cross contamination, and to drink plenty of water.


40-drops- Sandalwood (Santalum album), for its analgesic (α-β santalol) and anti-viral (teresentalal) properties (Price & Price 2007 p465).

40-drops- Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) for its analgesic (linalool), anti-infectious (geraniol) and anti-viral (geraniol) properties (Price & Price 2007 p449).

40-drops- Greek sage (Salvia trloba) for its anti-viral (fenchome) and analgesic (borneol) properties (Bowles 2003 pp75-145), (Yildirim.. et al 2000 pp5030-4).


30mls aloe vera gel for its anti- inflammatory properties ( al 1996 pp69-75).

This approach was intensive as it was applied direct to the herpes virus lesions, allowing the oils to react as quickly as possible with the lesions and attack the virus.


This was a successful treatment through using the oils in the intensive way to attack the virus quickly as the pain was reduced almost immediately and the viral infection cleared up quickly.

When using the intensive approach in the treatment of a client it is important to remember to support the “terrain” (immune system) of the individual. If an infection is recurrent then the body defences must be low (Blackwell & Smith 1995 pp22-27). In supporting the terrain with the use of relevant essential oils to bring about homeostasis, the body will begin to heal, improving well-being (Blackwell & Smith 1995 pp22-27).


There are many comparisons between the French and British approaches and attitudes towards aromatherapy. The French use essential oils more intensively and have integrated aromatherapy into orthodox medicine. This method of use is taken very seriously and there are laws in place that are statutory as to who can practice the use of these oils in medicinal way. The French laws are very clear in what is expected from the education and training of aromatherapy.

I believe that the study of the French “Aromatic medicine” approach to the use of essential oils would be an important aspect of moving British aromatherapy forward and integrating it with conventional medicine in the U.K. Education would need to be changed and the possibility of the French approach being introduced into the core curriculum set out by the aromatherapy council would also help this profession to be taken seriously. A set syllabus that all education establishments would have to adhere to would be more beneficial than one that can be changed to suit the establishment or student. As suggested by Jenkins’s (2006) in her paper relating to education and regulation of defined levels of practitioners working their way through various levels of training to the position they want to practice at in a similar way to that of nurses, this would give other health care professionals a better understanding of the competence of an aromatherapist. This would lead to the need of a single body to set regulations for practitioners and create the need of statutory regulation for practicing therapist and provide safety regulations for the public. Confidence in aromatherapy would develop in the medical profession and the possibility of them taking this therapy more seriously would be greater. If there were more astringent laws in the U.K. to combine better education standards, regulation and evidence based research then aromatherapy would find its way into working alongside conventional medicine in a clinical setting.

There is a concern that by regulating aromatherapy, the laws may become similar to that of France and that only medical personnel would be able to use essential oils in practice. As Schnaubelt 1998 suggested he does not see the need that a practitioner be a doctor. My own personal believe is that non-medical practitioners should be able to practice alongside the medical profession, so that both approaches may be used together synergistically and the holistic aspect of the traditional meaning of aromatherapy can still be implemented and preserved. I also believe that more random controlled trials should be undertaken as there is a lack of evidence based practice to prove the validity of the essential oils and their therapeutic properties As suggested by Maddocks-Jennings and Wilkinson 2004 the use of essential oils being used in a clinical way is being hampered by the lack of large scale empirical data.