Electronic Human Resource (e-HR)

Electronic Human Resource (e-HR)

Literature Review
Discussion and Analysis

This paper examines and investigates the issue about the role of e-HR. Also, the paper intensively examines many characteristics of factors affecting the use of the role of e-HR and to learn all about these factors involved. This includes anything and everything associated with the electronic management of human resources and employment relationships in the organization. Having looked at the several factors, this paper considers the most pertinent analysis to the objectives and purpose of this paper. In the case of the present study, there is a need to make use of a combination of analytical and theoretical methods in order to capture an accurate and comprehensive depiction of the many factors that affect the subject of the study. The author provides a conclusive note on the quantity, content and data quality of e-HR systems practices such as cross-functional knowledge and collaboration of different e-hr schemes used. This paper critically analyzes the concept of e-HR and the factors associated with the challenges and issues of the present systems.

Accurate, time-efficient and reliable data on the workforce can facilitate the shaping of the organizations’ people strategy to ensure that it reflects the needs of the organization. Electronic HR can provide these means of monitoring and collecting performance indicators, which will give sufficient evidence of whether or not the HR strategy aims and objectives are achieved. A quality e-HR system is important for capturing valid and accurate workforce information. This system helped traditional human resources organizations to combat struggling to allocate their resources. They are hindered often by a traditional mode of HR practices such as multitude of paper-based, manual transactions and processes, such as payroll, tax and benefits information, that are prone to human errors, costly and time-consuming to manage. This facilitates activation of the organization’s capacity to be evaluated and prepare for the future needs to be planned for (Keebler & Rhodes, 2002).

e-HR is an essential factor for the organization’s human resource improvement planning, and cross-functional knowledge and collaboration between multiple departments. Effective collaborative data analysis and capture is needed to recognize any retention and recruitment issues and to provoke initiative and action on how problems can be resolved. e-HR can also widen the potential of every department and facilitate effective recruitment pooling and accelerating of the administrative processes involved (Ulrich, 2000). It involves technology application to provide HR functions and services, such as monitoring and recording systems, automating clerical, recruitment and administrative tasks like disseminating information such as HR rules and policies on the intranet. As e-HR aids to build a stronger set of labor and workforce through better training, recruiting and retention, the human resources helps drive the business efficiency as a whole. And a more efficient, productive and agile form of business can better respond to competitive and ever changing market shifts, and be more profitable (Hussain et al, 2007). E-HR can make it very easy for HR organizations to focus on higher business value initiatives that will facilitate efficiency and profitability (Gueutal & Stone, 2005).
This paper takes an overview and discussions at the e-hr models for an organization and provides suggestions how that specific management applications, rulings or model would manifest itself in developing an atmosphere for organizational growth, operations and development in the contemporary set of modern business environment.

The Institute for Employment Studies defines e-HR as "the conventional application, voice and web technologies to improve HR transactions, administration and process performance through cross-functional knowledge and collaboration between multiple departments". According to Akkermans, H. (2009), e - HR refers to the broad access to human resources tools, data and transactions available directly on the web in most workplaces today.

Critical Analysis including the application/service’s contribution to HR
e-HR served as a technological enabling tool that has the capacity to transform the way in which HR functions is delivered to an authority. It describes the "net effect" of the web technologies explosion and the dramatic effect this growth has had on the way employees now receive information related to employment through integrated self-service applications. Akkerman (2009) said that e-HR plays a vital role in effective management of people together with the exponential increase in the application of technology in the corporate field. The HR delivery range options are huge in scope and so it is basic for authorities to collaborate with other departments and to maximize their HR functions and abilities. These delivery options include: insourcing, outsourcing, relationship management technology of employee ASPs (Application Service Provision) and the platform for ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) with the utilization of interactive voice recognition. Basically, the organization is looking to other systems and e-HR, to enable their delivery systems modifications for both HR and wider organizational services (Akkermans, 2009).

Moreover, rewards and pay is a crucial factor of any people management strategy of an organization. e-HR can be utilized in this area facilitate pay modelling and to streamline administrative processes. e-HR performance management can help rationalize, consolidate and monitor feedback from employee through 360-degree appraisals, automated appraisal records and competency framework systems. e-HR can also build the organization with the development and skills evaluation opportunities. Additionally, there may be higher scope to improve the organizational skills through the use of e-learning methods. Through e-HR, sickness absences can be managed more efficiently by utilizing e-HR technologies and applications such as electronic monitoring. e-HR can be applied to promote and monitor action efficiently to support diversity and equality in the workforce. Where safety and health is concerned, e-HR can help give necessary data on reporting accident at work and the risk assessment results (Ulrich, 2000).
Organization can respond to the rising internal and external demand for data with greater efficiency and speed. This may include: benchmarking or monitoring, providing information for indicators of Best Value Performances, completing EO surveys and government staffing returns. The efficient e-HR system can also decrease the occurrence of duplication and aid HR practitioners so they can perform proactively based on strategic tasks which improve the organization’s improvement agenda (Akkermans, 2009).

The overall cost of e-HR system implementation depend very much system the authority requires to do. A system can be developed or purchased to undertake a single task, such as the training data recording, or can be associated so that it supports a range of HR functions and activities is linked to other local department or authority systems such as accounting and finance (Ulrich, 2000). When creating a decision for e-HR implementation, the authority is required to carefully evaluate the aims and objectives of the system and set out a clear boundaries and specification for what is needed and required, in accordance to the resources and budget available. When indentifying the needed costs, the organization will also need to consider related finances or costs, such as the training for staff, revisions to processes, new hardware and how much will be needed for the system maintenance. Overlooking areas which are affected by e-HR is all too easy. To decrease this possibility, the organization need drawn up a number of guidance and checklist which aim to point out the areas that should be considered. These include the content, structure and technology of an e-HR system as well as the staff and employees themselves (Keebler & Rhodes, 2002).

Whether an organization is introducing an e-HR system for the first time, or simply updating their existing e-HR system, they will need to evaluate and identify how e-HR will promote the strategy achievement and clarifying the information or services the HR needs to give to the organization, considering whether these type of services are best given and delivered via e-HR, reviewing current capabilities of the system capabilities and calculating whether e-HR will add value to the goals and objectives of the council and their HR department (Akkermans, 2009). Reviewing the current HR function is also important where it is structured in a way that will support e-HR and linking the e-HR approaches to the overall strategy of the organization. Keebler & Rhodes (2002) asrgues that tt is important to establish the information and data that requires to be part of the system, that is the "inputs" how this systems and data will be associated to the "outputs" the system before generating any contracts with a systems provider when planning or reviewing any analysis system and new data capture. Those taking decisions on improving these systems and procuring should not only have a full management information understanding which is required to be linked to other department, such as administrative and finance (Ulrich, 2000).

In using e-HR, the electronic systems used are virtually pointless if the data entered cannot be usefully analyzed, retrieved or interpreted. It is important to consider the capability of current systems when identifying which data outputs an e-HR system should be able to provide specifically in the area of reports and analysis required from the e-HR system and who will need the reports and receive information related to employment through integrated self-service applications (Keebler & Rhodes, 2002).

Ulrich (2000) argues that when implementing a new approach to e-HR, it will be important to consider the need for behavioral change, HR staff and managers have the relevant capabilities and reviewing the skills for the organization's current work information management and processes to maximize the e-HR benefits and how will non-office based staff be able to utilize it (Ulrich, 2000). E-HR also ensure a positive system response, it is necessary to consult employees and employers– particularly where self-service is applied – on the quantity, content and data quality provided and needing data security visit. Strategic decisions on cross-functional knowledge and collaboration between multiple departments are also crucial about the issue of who will have access to the different information levels output and input for the perceived system used; it may be important to review the current information registration criteria and protection policy (Akkermans, 2009).

Keebler & Rhodes (2002) suggest improving efficiency of a certain company and contributing to the organization’s bottom line through adapting an e-HR business model, moving traditional tasks of HR processes and tools onto the Internet or internal intranets via a portal. Many organizations are looking for e-HR solutions that can facilitate automation on their streamline workflows and task, and improve the workforce efficiency by giving self-service tools, information and training (Hussain et al, 2007). Through process automation, HR can align itself better with the enterprise’ business objectives and focus on higher business value and services as well as the provision of employee needs, such as development and training. A quality e-HR system is important for capturing valid and accurate workforce information. This facilitates activation of the organization’s capacity to be evaluated and prepare for the future needs to be planned for. e-HR is an essential factor for the organization’s human resource improvement planning, and cross-functional knowledge and collaboration between multiple departments (Gueutal & Stone, 2005).

One good case study example for e-hr implementation is a Dutch telecommunications company, KPN. After the adoption and implementation of their e-HR system and strategy, they were able to produce efficient reports with regards to employee competencies, skills, illness or leaves patterns and other types of data and information without consuming much effort and time (Pollitt 2006). In response to this case, A Keebler & Rhodes (2002) explain that e-HR systems as “a series of activities which: first enables business entities and the organization or person which uses their technological resources and skills to properly manage the objectives and nature of their business and people relationship and, secondly, ensures that the agreement is fulfilled through receiving information related to employment through integrated self-service applications.”
Reflecting on the discussions in e-HR practices, I propose halting further research studies about a ‘magic’ transformation and cost reduction of an HR department into a strategic unit because of the application of e-HR. It has been assumed that there won’t be any more costs to cut in the coming years and focus on the consequences integrative of deploying e-HRM in organizations. Second, business organizations are definitely silent about whether their HR departments become ‘more strategic’ with the applications of e-HR. By focusing on the strategy literature on competitive advantage, it shows that a HR’s primary administrative HR function is highly unlikely to become more strategic focus with the e-HR introduction. On the other hand, e-HR can become more strategic focus as a consequence of an existing strategic HR function (Lengnick-Hall & Mortiz, 2010). Additionally, from a strategic point of view, standard e-HR configurations advocated by consultants and vendors are accelerating the ‘competitive’ convergence rather than reinforce competitive advantage and distinctiveness (Gueutal & Stone, 2005).

Because of this, it is apparent that the role of Electronic Human Resources practices has more responsibilities to handle information related to employment through integrated self-service applications, thereby making an option in order to become more effective and efficient in the field of business. Indeed, e-hr also ensure a positive system response, it is necessary to consult employees and employers– particularly where self-service is applied – on the quantity, content and data quality provided and needing data security visit. In addition, some of the benefits of e-HR systems practices include the following: organizations were given the chance to assume a leading role in HR functions that requires cross-functional knowledge and collaboration between multiple departments; entrepreneurs took their responsibilities and accountabilities seriously; they have maintained high respect for the authority of human resource work; and they acknowledge the need to be considerate of the needs of other employees. e-hr proved that the system enables business organization, entities or a person which utilizes advanced technological skills and resources to properly manage the objectives, nature of the business and people relationship. E-hr also ensures the business system agreement is achieved through managing information related to employment through integrated self-service applications.

Akkermans, H. (2009), “e-HR implementation: a case study of interrelations between critical success factors”, European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 11, pp. 35-46.
Bach, S (ed) (2005). Managing Human Resources: Quality Management, Personnel Management in Transition. Fourth edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Gueutal H.G., and Stone D.L., (eds.) (2005), The Brave New World of e-HR, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Hughes, K., (2009). Exploring the relationship between HR and middle managers. Human Resource Management Journal. 11 (3). pp. 53-69
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Keebler, T. J. & Rhodes, D. W. (2002) E-HR becoming the 'path of least resistance'. Employment Relations Today, 29, 2, 57-66
Lengnick-Hall, M., and Mortiz, S. (2010), ‘The Impact of e-HR on the Human Resource Management Function,’ Journal of Labor Research, 24, 365–379
Politt, R. (2006). E-HR brings everything together at KPN. Emerald Publishing Group. VOL. 14 NO. 1 2006, pp. 34-35,
Ulrich, D. (2000), “From e-Business to e-HR”, Human Resource Planning, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 12-21.