The Changes and Development of Chinese Spring Festival Customs During the Past Three Decades Thesis

The Changes and Development of Chinese Spring Festival Customs During the Past Three Decades

Thesis Statement
By researching into the historical development of the Chinese Spring Festival and the changes of its customs during the past 32 years, the author explores its cultural significance, as well as finds the reasons for the changes and development.

Abstract
The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important festivals of Chinese people and an essential part of Chinese traditional culture. It has been practiced for thousands of years with few changes until 1978. Since China’s “Reform and Opening Up”, the customs of the Chinese Spring Festival have undergone remarkable changes.

In this paper, the author first considers the historical development of the Chinese Spring Festival and introduces its traditional customs to explore the cultural significance of this festival; then, by comparing and contrasting, the author illustrates the changes in Chinese Spring Festival customs during the past 32 years; finally, the author reveals some reasons for those changes and also the implications to encourage a continuing positive attitude towards those changes of Chinese Spring Festival customs as well as pointing out the direction of Chinese Spring Festival development in the future.

Outline
1. Introduction
2. Historical Development of the Chinese Spring Festival
2.1. Legend
2.2. Development in three important historical periods
2.2.1. The Pre-Qin Dynasty (before 221B.C.)
2.2.2. The Han and Wei Dynasties (202B.C.—265A.D.)
2.2.3. The Tang and Song Dynasties (618A.D—1279A.D.)
3. Traditional Customs and Cultural Significance of the Chinese Spring Festival
3.1. Traditional customs
3.1.1. Preparation
3.1.1.1. Dust-sweeping
3.1.1.2. Spring Couplets and paper-cuts
3.1.1.3. Food for the Spring Festival
3.1.2. New Year visits
3.1.3. Entertainment
3.1.3.1. New Year’s Eve Dinner
3.1.3.2. Temple Fair
3.1.3.3. Firecrackers
3.2. Cultural significance
3.2.1. Respect for the ancestors
3.2.2. Expectation for a better life
3.2.3. Family reunion
3.2.4. Social relationships
4. Changes in its Customs During the Past 32 Years
4.1. Shopping instead of home-making
4.2. Various forms of greeting
4.3. New Year’s Eve Dinner venues
4.4. Travel
4.5. Temple Fair traditions
4.6. Prohibition of Firecrackers
5. Reasons for, and implications of, the changes in Spring Festival customs
5.1. Reasons for the changes
5.1.1. Economic and technological development
5.1.2. Spread of urban living styles
5.1.3. Impact of Western festivals and Western culture
5.2. Implications of these changes
6. Conclusion

The Changes and Development of Chinese Spring Festival Customs During the Past Three Decades

1. Introduction
Festivals are colorful markers of time, dividing the year into many periods. These periods constitute our lives and festivals are the highlights in the course of our living. At festivals, people celebrate good harvests, pray for favorable weather for their crops, or try to drive away evil spirits in the hope of bringing peace and happiness to the family.

Chinese has a long history of celebrating festivals. For instance, long ago when people had a bountiful harvest, they gathered together and celebrated their good fortune with gala performances. When natural disasters struck, they offered sacrifices to the gods and their ancestors, hoping for a blessing. Changing seasons, flowers in spring, and the bright moon in autumn could all arouse their longing for a more beautiful life. Thus, creative activities were held to signify these events, and gradually these activities developed into traditional Chinese festivals (“The Origin of Chinese Lunar New Year”). Among all these festivals, the Spring Festival, also known as the Chinese New Year, which lasts for about 15 days, is considered the most important festival for Chinese people. The Spring Festival marks the beginning of the Chinese Lunar New Year, a time when people bid farewell to the old and welcome the new.

The traditional customs of Spring Festival have been practiced in China for thousands of years and have become an essential part of Chinese culture. However, since China’s “Reform and Opening Up” of 1978, these customs have undergone great changes because of great social and cultural development. Therefore, in this essay, the author researches those changes to find out the reasons, exploring the new meaning and significance for the Chinese Spring Festival.

2. Historical Development of the Chinese Spring Festival
In order to explore the cultural significance of Chinese Spring Festival, it is important to take a look at its historical development, including its origin and development in three critical periods: Pre-Qin Dynasty, Han and Wei Dynasties as well as Tang and Song Dynasties.

2.1. Legend
Chinese people generally refer to the celebration of the Spring Festival as “guo nian”. There are many legends about the origin of Nian, the most popular one being this. It is said that Nian was a fierce monster in ancient times. Usually it stayed deep in the mountains and caught and ate other beasts but, during the winter it could not find enough food. So, it emerged from the mountain and entered villages to eat whatever it could catch. Villagers became very frightened and escaped but, later, the people found that even though it was fierce, “Nian was afraid of three things: loud noise, the color red and fire” (Qi Xin 3). After learning this, they figured out how to prevent Nian from entering their villages. Just before Nian came again, every household painted their door red and burned a fire in front of their door-ways. Besides this, people did not go to bed. Instead, they stayed up all night beating on things to make a loud noise. Ever since, Nian has never again come to the villages. Thus, a tradition was established and the customs have been kept through the years.

2.2. Development in three important historical periods
Obviously, the forming of a festival usually goes through a long period of time. Here, three historical periods are introduced that are crucial to the development of Chinese Spring Festival, namely the Pre-Qin Dynasty, the Han and Wei Dynasties as well as the Tang and Song Dynasties.

2.2.1. The Pre-Qin Dynasty (before 221B.C.)
The Chinese Spring Festival originated in Pre-Qin Dynasty. At that time, material production was so weak that people’s lives completely depended on nature. The Spring Festival then was celebrated to worship nature and Gods to bless their harvest. Its celebrations were limited and few had anything to do with entertainment. The most common practice of the Spring Festival at that time was called “Nuo Ji” (Li Cuihua 14). “Nuo Ji” was a religious ritual usually conducted by the ruling class. In “Nuo Ji”, special music and dance were performed to fend off evil spirits and thank gods. Apart from worshiping Gods, people also showed respect for their ancestors. During the Spring Festival, people made food and wine out of the autumn harvest and sacrificed it to their ancestors (Li Cuihua 16). Of course, people also did something for themselves. They gathered to eat and drink, celebrating the autumn harvest and wishing for a better life. Although the customs in the Pre-Qin Dynasty were simple, they paved the way for the development of the Spring Festival in later periods.

2.2.2. The Han and Wei Dynasties (202B.C.—265A.D.)
The Spring Festival in the Han and Wei Dynasties was called “Zheng Dan” or “Yuan Zheng” (Xiao Fang 9). It was during the Han and Wei Dynasties that the Spring Festival customs became similar to those of modern times because, in addition to entertaining Gods and ancestors, people began to entertain themselves. On New Year’s Eve, the family got together to clean their house and have New Year’s Eve Dinner. The custom of setting off firecrackers during the Spring Festival also originated in this period.

2.2.3. The Tang and Song Dynasties (618A.D—1279A.D.)
The Tang and Song Dynasties were the golden periods in Chinese history. The prosperity of economy and culture accelerated the development of the Spring Festival. Living in a politically peaceful and materially abundant era, people had the desire to relax and enjoy themselves in the Spring Festival besides worshiping and praying. Therefore, various kinds of entertaining activities came into being. During the Spring Festival, people would eat elaborately made food, watch excellent performance in Temple Fair (refer to 3.1.3.2) and have fun in the Lantern Show. New Year visits became another prevalent practice in the Tang and Song Dynasties. State officials paid New Year visits to the emperor at “Zhao Hui”, a special meeting held between them (Li Cuihua 48). For common people, a visit to relatives and friends was a necessary part of their Spring Festival activities. In a word, the function of the Spring Festival in the Tang and Song Dynasties changed from the religious one to entertaining and social ones, more like that of today.

3. Traditional Customs and Cultural Significance of the Chinese Spring Festival
There are various traditional customs in the Chinese Spring Festival, and they constitute the most colorful components of this grand holiday. It is through the practicing of these customs that Chinese people experience and preserve their special culture.

3.1. Traditional customs
The traditional customs of the Chinese Spring Festival are introduced in three parts in this essay (i.e. preparation, New Year visits and entertainment), with each part containing more specific information.

3.1.1. Preparation
The Chinese Lunar New Year celebration requires a lot of preparation work. Traditionally, the family members get together to prepare for the New Year.

3.1.1.1. Dust-sweeping
“Dust” is called “chen” in Chinese, which means the “old and past”. In this way, sweeping the dust before the Spring Festival means a thorough cleaning of the houses to sweep away bad luck in the past year. This custom shows a desire to put away old things to welcome a new life. In short, just before the Spring Festival comes, every household gives a thorough cleaning to bid farewell to the old year and welcome the bright new one.

3.1.1.2. Spring Couplets and paper-cuts
“Spring Couplet”, also called “couplet” and “a pair of antithetical phrases”, is a special form of literature in China. The Spring Couplet is “composed of two antithetical sentences on both sides of the door and a horizontal scroll bearing an inscription, usually an auspicious phrase, above the gate” (“An Introduction to the Traditional Customs, History, and Greetings of Chinese Spring Festival”). The sentence pasted on the right side of the door is called the first line of the couplet and the one on the left the second line. On the eve of the Spring Festival, every household pastes on doors a spring couplet written on red paper. In addition to the Spring Couplet, people also paste paper-cuts on the windowpanes. The paper-cuts are red-colored and intricate, usually “in the shape of character figures from Chinese operas, flowers, birds, insects and fish” (Yang Enhua, et al 162). Paper-cuts give a happy and prosperous atmosphere to the Spring Festival and express the good wishes of Chinese people looking forward to a prosperous life.

3.1.1.3. Food for the Spring Festival
Spring Festival food is, of course, always more elaborate than at other times of the year (Qi Xin 9). There is slight difference between the Spring Festival food in the northern and southern part of China. In northern China, dumplings (in Chinese, “Jiao Zi”) are the most popular food during the Spring Festival. Dumplings are made into the shape of gold crescent to represent good fortune. However, in southern China, people prefer dishes of chicken, duck, fish and meat. In addition to these, there are also various kinds of dim sum snacks. For example, sticky cake made of glutinous rice flour is always something that must be served around the New Year. In Chinese, the words for sticky cake, “Nian Gao”, sound the same as “ascending every year”, which indicates success. Before the New Year, family members, especially the females, get together to prepare the food, talking and laughing. The food prepared will be used in mainly three ways: firstly, they are used to make sacrifices to the Gods and the family’s ancestors; secondly, they will be enjoyed by the family members; and thirdly, they are served when visitors come during the Spring Festival.

3.1.2. New Year visits
On the first day of the Chinese Lunar New Year, all people put on their best clothes and go out to visit their relatives and friends, wishing them all the luck for the coming year. Juniors greet seniors, wishing them health and longevity, while seniors give juniors some lucky money as a wish for their safety in the coming year. This lucky money is wrapped in little red envelopes, “Hong Bao”, because the red color has auspicious meaning in Chinese culture (Lu Hui 19). When friends meet, they wish each other happiness and prosperity with a big smile. The commonly used festival greetings are “Xin Nian Kuai Le” (“Happy New Year”), “Ji Xiang Ru Yi” (“I wish you everything goes well”), “Gong Xi Fa Cai” (“May you have a good fortune”), “Sui Sui Ping An” (“May you have peace all year round”) and so on.

3.1.3. Entertainment
As mentioned above, the main function of the Chinese Spring Festival has shifted from its religious one to an entertaining one, so various kinds of entertaining activities are necessary for a successful Spring Festival. It is simply time for people to relax and have fun after a year’s hard work.

3.1.3.1. New Year’s Eve Dinner
On the eve of the Chinese New Year, all members of the family come together over a dinner. It is an elaborately-made dinner with prepared food mentioned above. Significantly, there are some traditional conventions about the New Year’s Eve Dinner. For example, when you are eating a fish, the head and tail of the fish should not be consumed so everything in the following year will have a good beginning and end. What is more, “if a family member is unable to join the dinner, an empty chair with his or her clothes is reserved as a reminder of the absentee” (Qi Xin 13). Another important activity to do while having the New Year’s Eve Dinner is watching the New Year’s Gala on TV. The New Year’s Gala is a variety show held by China Central Television (CCTV) since 1983. Every year at the turning point of the Lunar New Year, the program begins at 8:00PM and lasts until approximately 12:30AM on the first day of the New Year (“CCTV New Year's Gala”). It brings laughter to billions of Chinese people and is essential entertainment for the Chinese both at home and abroad.

3.1.3.2. Temple Fair
Temple Fair, usually held outside temples, is a folk custom in China. Originally a religious activity, it has gradually evolved towards an activity for entertainment and commercial purposes. Since the Pre-Qin Dynasty (see 2.2.1), it has permeated the daily life of ordinary people (Cao Rong & Hua Zhiya 171). During the Spring Festival, Temple Fair is one of the most important activities, in which there are such performances as traditional acrobatics and Wushu (Chinese kung fu), as well as selling of numerous kinds of local snacks. People from every walk of life and economic background could revel in the joys of the fair.

3.1.3.3. Firecrackers
The firecracker is a unique product in China. In ancient China, the sound of burning bamboo was used to scare away wild animals and evil spirits, just as the legend (see 2.1) tells. But now it is mainly used to foster a joyful atmosphere. The first thing every Chinese household does in the New Year is to set off firecrackers and fireworks, which are meant to bid farewell to the old year and welcome the new one. Firecrackers are especially popular among children, who buy as many firecrackers as possible with their lucky money and play to their heart’s content.

3.2. Cultural significance
Festivals are the carriers of national culture, and the Spring Festival is no exception. All kinds of activities and customs mentioned previously represent the essence of Chinese culture. Therefore, the Spring Festival contains plentiful of cultural significance. Generally speaking, it can be summarized in four parts: respect for the ancestors, expectation for a better life, family reunion and social relationships (Wu Zhaosheng 106).

3.2.1. Respect for the ancestors
As mentioned in the second part of this essay, the Spring Festival emerged in the Pre-Qin Dynasty as a religious activity to worship Gods and the family’s ancestors. Due to the weak productive force of that time, people’s lives mostly relied on the nature, and, due to their limited knowledge, people attributed a good harvest or natural disaster to the blessings of their ancestors or punishment from the Gods. As a result, people think a good sacrifice should be made to express their great gratitude and respect for their ancestors, wishing to get more protection and blessing from them. Even now when people are knowledgeable enough to not to believe in any superstitious force, they continue to practise this custom to pay respect for their ancestors. It is through the practice of this traditional custom that Chinese people experience their native culture and construct their national identity.

3.2.2.Expectation for a better life
Naturally, the Chinese Spring Festival is a time when people bid farewell to the old year and welcome the new one, so a lot of customs express people’s expectation for a better life. First of all, the expectation is represented by the use of red colors. In Chinese culture, “red” symbolizes the auspicious. Therefore, red colors are used during the Spring Festival to bring good luck. For example, the Spring Couplets are written on red papers and the lucky money is wrapped in red envelopes. Secondly, the food for Spring Festival also contains people’s wish for a better life. “Jiao Zi” is made into the shape of a gold crescent, which indicates good fortune; and “Nian Gao” means “ascending every year” in Chinese, which indicates greater success in the coming year. Last but not least, the greetings, obviously, show people’s expectation for a better life (refer to 3.1.2).

3.2.3. Family reunion
The Spring Festival is a time for family reunion. In ancient times, men of the family went to work outside or fought in battle all the year round. Due to the lack of transport, they seldom came back home. The women were left at home to take care of the children and do housework. It was during the Spring Festival time that the husbands returned home to join the whole family and spend about two weeks with them. Nowadays, although the transport is available, not every one can return home frequently, especially those migrant workers and people overseas. Therefore, the Spring Festival is a time for family reunion. No matter how busy they may be, they return to their families in the Spring Festival. If a Chinese person spends the Spring Festival without the company of his or her family, it is regarded by Chinese people as very unfortunate.

3.2.4. Social relationships
The Spring Festival is also a good opportunity to maintain one’s social relationships. People are quite busy with their work every day, so the great holiday of Spring Festival is used to maintain their social relationships. During the Spring Festival, people visit their friends, colleagues and professional business partners, giving each other presents and good wishes. By doing so, people keep in touch with each other, repairing and enlarging their social networks.

4. Changes in the Customs During the Past 32 Years
Since China’s “Reform and Opening Up” in the year of 1978, everything has undergone great changes. These changes are reflected in many aspects of people’s lives, indicating the economic, political and social changes people are experiencing. The changes in the customs of the Spring Festival are typical examples.

4.1. Shopping instead of home-making
It has been discussed in the “preparation” part that before the Spring Festival, the family happily gets together to prepare food and other necessities for the holiday. The atmosphere of the Spring Festival permeates the air. However, this kind of scene is less frequent nowadays. Instead of making preparations at home, people are inclined to go shopping. Before 1978, consuming commodities were rare and ordinary people did not have much access to them. Compared with 32 years ago, commodities are much more abundant today. Thus, people consider it is not necessary for them to prepare everything by themselves. So, shopping is just a convenient and efficient way. Research statistics from an investigation into the lifestyle of the Spring Festival in a village of Hubei province show that before 1978, only 13% of the villagers thought that a lot of money should be spent on shopping for the Spring Festival; but after 1978, the percentage rose to 46.6% (Zhang Huijin 25). It indicates that more and more people prefer shopping than home-making.

4.2. Various forms of greeting
In the past, people liked to visit relatives and friends during the Spring Festival and give their New Year’s greetings no matter how far away others lived. However, during the past 32 years, various means of high-tech (i.e. modern technology) have replaced the traditional way of greeting for the sake of saving time. People, especially younger ones, choose telephone, SMS, e-mail and other high-technique forms to send their best wishes.

4.3. New Year’s Eve Dinner venues
In recent years, especially the last decade, sayings like this are often heard: “Life’s getting better and better, and every day we celebrate the Spring Festival!” Because of improving living standards and an abundant supply of food, people no longer only expect the Spring Festival to have a big meal. What could only be tasted during the Spring Festival in the past is available at any time today (Zhu Xiaoyan 55). More and more families don't even bother to prepare an elaborate New Year’s Eve Dinner. Instead, they have their special dinner outside in restaurants. This practice is convenient and fashionable for the city people, but some think it lacks the atmosphere of the traditional Spring Festival.

4.4.Travel
China’s “Reform and Opening Up” policy has made people wealthier than ever before both materially and spiritually. People are no longer satisfied with the traditional ways of celebrating the Spring Festival, i.e. having a big and elaborate meal, visiting relatives and friends, and having fun in the Temple Fair (Qin Xiangju 136). In the 1980s and 1990s, they began to look at the outside world. Thus, travelling became an increasingly popular way to spend the Spring Festival. People would rather travel around the country, or even around the world, than stay at home practicing traditional customs that many people now consider boring.

4.5.Temple Fair traditions
Temple Fair, the gorgeous collection of folk culture (see 3.1.3.2), is declining in both numbers and impact today. Provided with many other entertainments, people gradually neglect the importance of Temple Fair. Temple Fairs in many places have disappeared or evolved into commercial markets. Only a few big and influential ones are preserved and continue today, for example, the Temple Fairs in Beijing (“Temple Fair”). The preserved Temple Fairs have become places for people to appreciate the traditional art and experience the traditional life.

4.6. Prohibition of Firecrackers
Setting firecrackers is supposed to be an essential part of Chinese Spring Festival. Chinese people believe this can drive away evil spirits and bring good luck. However, it is, to some extent, harmful to the environment and health. The burning of firecrackers pollutes the air and the noise affects people’s work and life. As a result, setting firecrackers has been banned in most urban areas recently. However, some voices claim that the prohibition of firecrackers lessens the already declining flavor of the Spring Festival and it is undermining traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, the prohibition of firecrackers has been a controversial issue that needs to be negotiated well between the government and the firecracker manufacturers.

5. Reasons for, and implications of, the changes in Spring Festival customs

5.1. Reasons for the changes
There are numerous reasons accounting for the changes and development of anything. The causes of the changes in Spring Festival customs can be examined from three aspects: economic and technological development, the spread of urban living styles, as well as the impact of Western festivals and Western culture.

5.1.1. Economic and technological development
Since China’s “Reform and Opening Up” in 1978, the Chinese economy has improved tremendously. People’s living standards have also improved, so they no longer have to struggle for their food. Therefore, some extra money can be spared for New Year’s shopping and travelling. The development of technology as well has changed the traditional way of celebrating the Spring Festival. The use of high-tech tools like telephones and e-mail has widened people’s physical and psychological distance. People are spreading all over the world. So that the notion of “family-reunion” is not as important as it used to be (Li Songjie 44).

5.1.2. Spread of urban living styles
Life in the city is characterized by high-pace, so people pursue efficiency and convenience. During the past 32 years, with China’s economic and social development, urban living styles have been spreading all over the country. Therefore, a convenient way of celebrating the Spring Festival (see 4.1—4.4) has become predominant, and the former complicated but colorful way is considered to be “out-of-date”. Even in the countryside where its traditions are supposed to be better preserved, the Spring Festival customs are being simplified every year. The younger generation, most of who have been raised in an urban culture, get less and less familiar with the traditional customs of the Spring Festival. To them, the Spring Festival is more of a ritual form than an interesting and meaningful activity.

5.1.3. Impact of Western festivals and Western culture
With the “Reform and Opening Up” policy, China has embraced various cultures from all around the world. Consequently, foreign culture, especially the Western culture, has entered China and has great impact on young people who are taught to broaden their view and learn to appreciate different cultures. Now Western festivals are quite popular among Chinese young people. Many young people in China celebrate Christmas, Easter, Halloween and other Western festivals. Compared with their own festivals, the Western ones are “fresh and fashionable” (Wu Zhaosheng 108). In this way, traditional Chinese festivals like the Spring Festival are, to some extent, neglected by many young people and traditional customs are less practiced.

5.2. Implications of these changes
Clearly, the Spring Festival, although an essential part of Chinese culture, is weakening in this transitional period of China’s development. Some people can’t help worrying that the Spring Festival may disappear someday. Others even doubt the value of celebrating this traditional festival today. However, in the author’s view, it is not necessary for people to worry about the fate of the Spring Festival, as explained below.
First of all, no matter how developed a society is, people’s wishes to be happy and healthy do not change. Thus, we are still in need of the Spring Festival through whose customs we can express our good wishes. Then, since the Spring Festival is an integral part of Chinese culture and has been firmly rooted in the daily life of Chinese people, people need it to maintain their unique national identity. Without traditional festivals and the cultural significance embodied in them, no people know who they are and what they are doing. Last but not least, although the traditional ways of celebrating the Spring Festival is declining, new and fresh ones will be added. These new ways adapt to the changing society and will become new customs years later. Yet, no matter how the forms change, the traditional social and cultural meaning represented in such activities always exists. In short, the Spring Festival is not going to disappear in the future. Instead, it will develop dynamically as a permanent, continuing part of Chinese culture.

6. Conclusion
In this essay, the author first reviews the historical development of the Chinese Spring Festival. And a detailed look is taken at the traditional Spring Festival customs in the attempt to explore the cultural significance of the Spring Festival. Then, by comparing and contrasting, the author researches the changes in Spring Festival customs and suggests reasons for these changes. Finally, the author draws some implications from these changes, in the hope of providing people with a proper attitude towards the changes and development of the Spring Festival.

However, inevitably the limitations exist. For one thing, the Chinese Spring Festival is such a comprehensive topic that it is impossible to make a thorough exploration within a short essay. For another, the Spring Festival customs vary in different places, so this essay could not cover the whole picture. Therefore, further studies are still needed to investigate such cultural changes and their implications regarding the future of Chinese culture.

Sources Cited
“An Introduction to the Traditional Customs, History, and Greetings of Chinese Spring Festival”

Cao Rong & Hua Zhiya. Folk Temple Fairs. Beijing: China Social Press, 2006.
“CCTV New Year's Gala”

Li Cuihua. “Study on Spring Festival from Pre-Qin to Song Dynasty.” MA thesis, Zhongshan University, 2010.
Li Songjie. “A Sociological Explanation for the Changes in the Spring Festival Customs: A Case Study of Hei Longjiang Area Since 1930s.” China’s Ethnic Groups 2 (2008): 42-44.
Lu Hui. “Traditional Celebration of the Chinese New Year.” College English 1 (2009): 17-21.
“The Origin of Chinese Lunar New Year”

Qi Xin. Chinese Festivals. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 2008.
Qin Xiangju. “Changes in the Customs of the Chinese New Year in Cities and Their Cultural Connotations.” Journal of Anhui Agricultural University (social science edition) 17 (2008): 134-137.
“Temple Fair”

Wu Zhaosheng. “Chinese Spring Festival Customs and Culture Development from a Cultural Sociological View.” Journal of Shijiazhuang University of Economics 31 (2008): 105-108.
Xiao Fang. Talking About the Chinese Spring Festival. Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2008.
Yang Enhua, et al. Aspect of Chinese Culture. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2006.
Zhang Huijin. “Study on Lifestyle of the Spring Festival in Middle Rural Areas of China in the Period of Transition: An Investigation to B Village of Hubei Province.” MA thesis, Huazhong Agricultural University, 2007.
Zhu Xiaoyan. “The Cultural Heritage and Changes of the Chinese Spring Festival Customs.” The New Generation 2 (2008): 54-55.

Works Cited
Print
Published books:
Cao Rong & Hua Zhiya. Folk Temple Fairs. Beijing: China Social Press, 2006.
Qi Xin. Chinese Festivals. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 2008.
Xiao Fang. Talking About the Chinese Spring Festival. Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2008.
Yang Enhua, et al. Aspect of Chinese Culture. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, 2006.

Journal articles:
Li Songjie. “A Sociological Explanation for the Changes in the Spring Festival Customs: A Case Study of Hei Longjiang Area Since 1930s.” China’s Ethnic Groups 2 (2008): 42-44.
Lu Hui. “Traditional Celebration of the Chinese New Year.” College English 1 (2009): 17-21.
Qin Xiangju. “Changes in the Customs of the Chinese New Year in Cities and Their Cultural Connotations.” Journal of Anhui Agricultural University (social science edition) 17 (2008): 134-137.
Wu Zhaosheng. “Chinese Spring Festival Customs and Culture Development from a Cultural Sociological View.” Journal of Shijiazhuang University of Economics 31 (2008): 105-108.
Zhu Xiaoyan. “The Cultural Heritage and Changes of the Chinese Spring Festival Customs.” The New Generation 2 (2008): 54-55.

Unpublished MA theses:
Li Cuihua. “Study on Spring Festival from Pre-Qin to Song Dynasty.” MA thesis, Zhongshan University, 2010.
Zhang Huijin. “Study on Lifestyle of the Spring Festival in Middle Rural Areas of China in the Period of Transition: An Investigation to B Village of Hubei Province.” MA thesis, Huazhong Agricultural University, 2007.

Non-print
Internet:
“An Introduction to the Traditional Customs, History, and Greetings of Chinese Spring Festival”

“CCTV New Year's Gala”

“The Origin of Chinese Lunar New Year”

“Temple Fair”