Psychology and Sociology

Fictional and Non-fictional Hero Comparison Essay - Comparing the Novel Long Distance Life by Maria Golden and The Diary of Anne Frank by Otto H. Frank

Fictional and Non-fictional Hero Comparison Essay - Comparing the Novel Long Distance Life by Maria Golden and The Diary of Anne Frank by Otto H. Frank

Response Paper on “Anatomy of an Epidemic” by Bob Fancher

Response Paper on “Anatomy of an Epidemic” by Bob Fancher

Introduction to Psychology - Three Men Who Created a Great Deal of Debate: B.F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud, and Abraham Maslow

Introduction to Psychology - Three Men Who Created a Great Deal of Debate: B.F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud, and Abraham Maslow

The world has seen the likes of many interesting people and there were three gentleman who left their mark on this world creating a great deal of debate due to their theories. B.F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud, and Abraham Maslow. Each individual was responsible for a number of theories that remain as controversial as they were years ago. Never the less the three have made a significant impact in the world of psychology and use these theories as a form of teaching in modern times. Though their theories have been challenge by others we can not argue the fact that most of them make a sense.

I’m in an Interfaith Relationship - The MTV Video of Jasmine and Travis

I’m in an Interfaith Relationship - The MTV Video of Jasmine and Travis

Everyday couples have conflicts that they are faced with. They also hold the responsibility of getting pass those conflicts in a healthy and mature manner. In the MTV video I’m in an Interfaith Relationship, the couples are trying to hold on to the affection in their relationships while still holding on to their different faiths (“I’m in an,” 2011). In the video we watch how these two couples deal with being in an interfaith relationship.

What Counseling is to Me: Definitions, Thoughts, and Reflections

What Counseling is to Me: Definitions, Thoughts, and Reflections

An Explanation/Definition of Counseling and the Most Essential Characteristics of a Helping Relationship:
In 2010 the American Counseling Association adopted the following new working definition of counseling: Counseling is a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education, and career goals(American Counseling Association,2011). As an upcoming counselor I would like to personalize or expand the definition to embrace the ideologies I will bring to the counseling setting. After looking at a number of theories and definitions of counseling my definition is a bit eclectic. Counseling is a helping relationship established between a professional and a client. The counselor encourages, challenges, enables and assists clients in making independent life altering changes and choices. This process occurs over a period of time through self-examination, exploration and the aid of other therapeutic techniques. In this relationship clients are also challenged to accept the responsibility and consequences for the choices they make.

Does Caffeinated Coffee have the Same Effect as Decaffeinated Coffee When it Comes to Self-Awareness - A Psychology Paper

Does Caffeinated Coffee have the Same Effect as Decaffeinated Coffee When it Comes to Self-Awareness - A Psychology Paper
I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Caffeine

We all experience at some point in our life, the feeling of extreme exhaustion or just a lack of natural energy. When the body is utterly exhausted we seek to ordain our energy somehow or someway. Coffee is one of many prominent choices of energy drinks that people tend to rely on when it comes to sustaining energy. Based on experience, I found myself becoming addicted to drinking coffee. I drank both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and both drinks seemed to have the same effect on my energy and self-awareness. Although coffee helps increase awareness and energy levels, it left me wondering; does caffeinated coffee have the same effect as decaffeinated coffee when it comes to self-awareness and energy restoration? It is a common belief that people who drink decaffeinated coffee are not being exposed to the same effects as those who drink caffeinated coffee.

The Many Different Elements to Social Mobility

The Many Different Elements to Social Mobility

Introduction
There are many different elements to social mobility; moving up in life is not as easy as it may appear. Social mobility refers to the movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society’s stratification system to another (Schaefer, 2010, p. 149). The degree of social mobility varies among open stratification systems and closed stratification systems. In addition, there are four major types of social mobility; horizontal, vertical, intergenerational, and intragenerational. Education, race and ethnicity, and gender all impact social mobility in various ways. Sociologists among the structural functionalist school of thought and the conflict theorists both have differing perspectives on social mobility.

Stratification systems

Let the Music Make You Move - Does Music Benefit Those Partaking in Physical Activity?

Let the Music Make You Move - Does Music Benefit Those Partaking in Physical Activity?

Racial Minority Relationships: Asian-Americans’ Empathetic Attitudes toward African-Americans

Racial Minority Relationships: Asian-Americans’ Empathetic Attitudes toward African-Americans

Insight’s Insecurities: The Impact of Self-Esteem on Insight Problem Solving

Insight’s Insecurities: The Impact of Self-Esteem on Insight Problem Solving

Abstract
Varying levels of self-esteem (SE) foster the ability to think about problems in different ways but little is known about how this affects insight problems. This paper investigates the hypothesis that individuals experiencing high SE will solve more insight problems correctly than those experiencing low SE. It was also expected that manipulating contingency would mediate the relationship between SE and problem solving. To investigate this, participants in four conditions completed a dingbat problem-solving task. The results of the study support the hypothesis that high SE persons would solve more dingbat problems correctly than low SE persons. This is consistent with the idea that high SE individuals are more likely to abandon the mental set whereas low SE individuals will rely on their mental set until they receive evidence that it may be problematic. The interaction hypothesis was not supported suggesting that contingency does not mediate the relationship between SE and insight problem solving.

Introduction

Advanced Issues in Clinical Psychology - Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Leaders/Followers Self Concepts and Charisma Related to the Disorder

Advanced Issues in Clinical Psychology - Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Leaders/Followers Self Concepts and Charisma Related to the Disorder
In Addition to Theories, Criticisms, Limitations and Future Directions of Research in this Field

Abstract
Research studies, perspectives, theories, and conclusions about charismatic leadership and Narcissistic Personality Disorder will be compared and reviewed. Traditionally in psychology, Narcissistic Personality Disorder was not the typical topic of discussion but in recent decades Narcissistic Personality Disorder has become a popular construct amongst researchers, and psychoanalysts. This paper will emphasize research related to leaders/followers self-concepts, and charisma, in relation to narcissistic personality disorder, and the effects resulting from this combination. In addition theories, criticisms, limitations, and future directions of research in this field will be discussed.

Social Work Paper - Understanding the Diverse Group of Adolescent Homosexual Male Minorities: The Challenges of Working With People of All Backgrounds

Consider the following introduction of one of the most famous documents ever created in the United States of America; The Declaration of Independence. "When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

Reduction of Seclusion Episodes Within Psychiatric Services

Reduction of Seclusion Episodes Within Psychiatric Services

Reduction of seclusion episodes within psychiatric services has been a goal for many years (Tilley and Chambers 2005). There still continues to be a healthy debate on the subject. In this literature review there will be an exploration of issues regarding the subject. For the purpose of this search, Medline, PsychInfo, CINAL and PsyTri databases were utilized. Also, archive journal articles located within the Hillmorten research library. Throughout the majority of the literature reviewed, both physical and chemical restraint were themes. For this review they have been excluded.

More than 200 years have passed since French psychiatrist Philippe Pinel embarked on the course of unchaining the mental patients of La Salpetrière and Bicêtre. Today we are still using seclusion regularly in practice within psychiatry, despite supposed advances within the discipline (Busch 2005).

Exploring the Implications of the Diagnosis Borderline Personality Disorder for Consumers and Analysing It's Criteria With Reference to it's Historical, Socio-Political and Cultural Context

Exploring the Implications of the Diagnosis Borderline Personality Disorder for Consumers and Analysing It's Criteria With Reference to it's Historical, Socio-Political and Cultural Context

The diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) has been chosen for the purpose of this assignment. In my own practice I have struggled with the ethical and moral questions that nursing clients with BPD in an inpatient setting have raised. It has given me much room for reflection and personal learning.

Throughout this assignment the history, and current DSM IV diagnostic category will be looked at critically. Also some alternatives for future inclusion pondered alongside the underlying power struggles between mental health professions that influence diagnoses. From this there will be some discourse on how these points directly affect consumers. In doing so, it is hoped that some illumination will come for my own practice.
Spitzer et al (1979) outline the debate for the inclusion of two new DSM III classifications, borderline personality and schizotypal personality, because at the time there was no agreement on their definition or the overall concepts.

Self-Esteem and Stress Management

Self-Esteem and Stress Management

Self-esteem can be defined as a “favourable global interpretation of oneself” (Baumeister, Smart, & Boden, 1996, p. 5). Low self-esteem has been linked to depression (Overholser et al., 1995; Ryan et al., 1987; Butler et al, 1994, Kernis et al, 1991), where negative life events/situations can activate negative evaluations of the self in those with labile self-esteem (DeHart & Pelham, 2007). Having low self-esteem has also been associated with persecutory delusions (Freeman et al., 1998) as individuals attribute negative events and disappointments to the intentional actions of others in an effort to protect themselves from negative beliefs about themselves (Bentall et al., 2001).

Interpersonal Effectiveness Skills: Empathetic Listening & Empathy

Interpersonal Effectiveness Skills: Empathetic Listening & Empathy

“Understanding other’s feelings. Putting yourself in someone else’s shoes in a difficult time, and/or being ‘non-judgmental’”(2005-2012)

Empathy simply means “understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives.” (2005-2012). Being an empathic listener means giving your undivided attention. You need to focus on the speaker and not become distracted. Ask questions, if you are unsure. It’s ok if you don’t understand something they say. You are being a better listener if you fully understand them, so always make sure you do. There are always emotions with everyone, to be a better empathic listener read their emotions. Focus on their feelings, and respond when needed. However you don’t need to respond right away, sometimes absorbing the information makes you a better listener. Sometimes silence makes the speaker say more. Don’t be so quick to judge the speaker or anyone in the “story”. Being non- judgmental lets you focus on the issues and manage your understanding.

I Would Never! - Can an Individual's Behavior Change Simply be Because They Were in a Group of People?

I Would Never! - Can an Individual's Behavior Change Simply be Because They Were in a Group of People?

The psychology of human behavior is a strange, fickle, and often elusive thing. Everyone of “sound mind” will tell you that they make their own decisions and choices in life. Having one’s mind controlled by someone else is nothing aspired to by anyone. Even as far back as “the arrival of printing—thought to be the invention of the devil because it would put false opinions into people’s minds…” (Crystal 189), possession and control of one’s own thoughts and actions has been of the highest concern to us all. However, many of today’s experts say we don’t always have that control. Many experts believe that a person will act differently when in a group of people than the same person would act if alone. Could an individual’s behavior change (either in language or deed) simply be because they were in a group of people?

Youth Migration in a Taiwanese TV Drama: Agency and Resistance

Youth Migration in a Taiwanese TV Drama: Agency and Resistance

The Islamic Resurgence in Iran - Khomeini’s Revolt or a Popular Shiite Upheaval?

The Islamic Resurgence in Iran - Khomeini’s Revolt or a Popular Shiite Upheaval?

The Iranian Revolution has been one of the most shocking revolutions in recent history. Long viewed as a pillar of stability in the Middle East, Iran baffled the West when it rejected secular rule and became an authoritarian theocratic state. Few considered the rise of a theocracy in a modernized state possible, and even fewer thought it might come from a popular revolution. The modernizing Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, King of Kings fled the country in humiliation. Moreover, the aim of the revolution seemed to be entirely different than others of its kind. Whereas most revolution are demands for the need of progress, the Revolution in Iran expressed the need for the preservation of religious and cultural identity. Indeed, the historical value of this revolution is undeniably relevant. As Arjomand, an Iranian sociologist of State University New York, puts it: “It is clear that the Islamic Revolution in Iran is a cataclysm as significant and as unprecedented in world history as the French Revolution of 1989 and the Russian Revolution of 1917.”

Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion

Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion

Dr. Robert Cialdini is a social psychologist and marketing research at Arizona State University. He presents a theory of persuasion based on fixed action patterns. These fixed action patterns are intricate sequences of behavior that when triggered, occur in almost the same way every time. He calls the tools used to trigger these fixed action patterns weapons of influence. These weapons include commitment and consistency, reciprocation, social proof, authority, liking, and scarcity. I will discuss each of these in detail below.

Commitment and Consistency

The Relationship Between Precipitation, Barometric Pressure, Temperature and Shoplifting

The Relationship Between Precipitation, Barometric Pressure, Temperature and Shoplifting

Introduction
Can hotter weather have an effect on negative human behaviour? Social psychology has long debating the heat hypothesis, saying that as temperatures rise, so do reports of criminal behaviour. Although scattered evidence suggests that a relationship may exist, it is a prolonged debate in which some research falsifies these claims, and some supports it (Anderson, 2001, p.33). This phenomenon has been observed long before the birth of Psychology as a science. Dating back to the 1500, even Shakespeare commented on such hypothesis: “I pray thee, good Mercuito, let’s retire; The day is hot, the Capulets abroad, And if we meet we shall not ‘scape a brawl, Forn now, these hot days, is the mad blood stirring” (1595).

Schizophrenia Research Paper - My Own Observations

Schizophrenia Research Paper - My Own Observations

When I was a child there was a big panic surrounding schizophrenia, this was during the early eighties, due to the releasing of long term studies show how wide spread this mental disorder was. The problem with that was, as I like to call it, is that schizophrenia is a “functional disability,” you can have it and never know, or know and not have an effect on how you live your life. The flip side of that coin is that there are physical problems with you so while the symptoms can be treated it’s not some thing that will go into remission or be cured. Schizophrenia is more common that you would think about 1 in 100 people worldwide have schizophrenia to some degree or another. Overall the chances of having schizophrenia or developing symptoms if you do have it are very low, even if you a directly related to someone who has it. Even in the case of identical twins you are only looking at a 48% chance of one twin having it even if the other one does.

Basic Counselling Skills and Their Usefulness - Empathy, Acceptance, Warmth and Genuineness

Basic Counselling Skills and Their Usefulness - Empathy, Acceptance, Warmth and Genuineness

This essay explains the three essential qualities needed to become a good counsellor. The first part looks at Empathy, the second part Acceptance and Warmth (unconditional positive regard) and finally Genuineness (Congruence ).

Carl Rogers suggests that these three basic qualities are needed for a helping relationship to be successful. He also suggests that the counsellor’s skill to communicate these qualities would be sufficient in deciding if a helping relationship would have a positive outcome.

I will now examine each of these qualities:

EMPATHY
One dictionary definition explains empathy as ‘the power or state of imagining oneself to be another person and so of sharing his/her ideas and feelings’ ( Longman’s Dictionary ). But Carl Rogers gives a more precise definition. Empathy, according to Rogers is the ability to experience another person’s world as if it were one’s own without ever losing that ‘as if’ quality.

Kabbalah and Humanistic Psychology: A Search for the Human Potential

Kabbalah and Humanistic Psychology: A Search for the Human Potential

Between the 9th and the 15th century, Jewish philosophy was mostly concerned with inquiries of the nature of the human soul. Following the occupation of Constantinople in the East by the Muslims, scripts of ancient Greek philosophies had been translated and rediscovered, which brought about a great interest to Judaism. Judaic tradition incorporates many ideas from Greek philosophical teachings, especially Aristotelian and Platonist philosophy, making it a rather theological area of study (Samuelson, 2009). Its beginning was marked by two notable rabbis, which started deconstructing the meaning of life, beyond what was then known as dedicating life to the devotion of God. The first rabbi to incorporate these philosophical debates, Aristotelian in particular, was Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon. To his interpretation “The soul is… not a substance but something attached to a substance in the way that colour, sound, number, and so forth is attached to a body; the soul is external and internal”
(Samuelson, 2009, p. 527)

Solitary Confinement Paper

Solitary Confinement Paper

Introduction
This article will discuss the history solitary confinement, the reasons why solitary confinement is used, the side effects of solitary confinement, and some of the ethical frameworks that can be tied in with solitary confinement. The question that needs to be answered is: Is placing an individual in solitary confinement ethical? This paper will focus on the utilitarian, deontological, and peacemaking frameworks. Each will be described and used to determine whether solitary confinement is ethical or not from that point of view.

History of Solitary Confinement

Hermann Von Helmholtz on Neural Impulses, Perception and Audition

Hermann Von Helmholtz on Neural Impulses, Perception and Audition

Psychology and physiology are built on the foundations of Hermann Von Helmholtz and many other scientists. In essence, these foundations became stepping stones for the essential theories that help create the history surrounding these fields. The gap between psychology and physiology was made smaller by Helmholtz, as he discovered theories concerning neural impulses, perception and audition. Helmholtz contributed to the field of physics with his theory, the law of conservation of energy. Helmholtz also provided findings to the area of vision and helped to clarify the theories of color vision.

Hermann Ebbinghaus: The Memory Man

Hermann Ebbinghaus: The Memory Man

There have been several advancements in the field of psychology since the days of Hermann Ebbinghaus. In the late 1800’s, there emerged several individuals whom contributed to the advancements of “new psychology”, including the founder of experimental psychology Wilhelm Wundt. Another influential character during this time was Gustav Fechner who is the “inadvertent founder of psychophysics”. As these ideas were presented, they inspired Ebbinghaus to further advance experimental psychology and psychophysics into a domain that had not been reached before. Herman Ebbinghaus has made a lasting impression in the psychology world by examining the human memory as seen with nonsense syllables, retention of memory, and the famous forgetting curve (Goodwin, 2008, p. 121).

Social and Environmental Psychology - Paper on the Article Brutal Sports and Brutal Fans by Daniel Goleman

Social and Environmental Psychology - Paper on the Article Brutal Sports and Brutal Fans by Daniel Goleman

This paper is about “Brutal Sports and Brutal Fans” by Daniel Goleman. It appeared in The New York Times on August 13, 1985.The article discusses two points of view regarding the relationship between aggressive sports and violent behaviour in the fans and those who watches. Psychologists and sociologists believe that violence occurs as a result of the interaction between the fans and the games. However, sport figures argue that violence in the field is due to the violence present in society and has nothing to do with the game itself.

Values Essay: Expressing the Ability to Apply Social Concepts and Values and Understanding the Social Work Values and Ethics

Values Essay: Expressing the Ability to Apply Social Concepts and Values and Understanding the Social Work Values and Ethics

Social work is a profession where the objective is to improve the lives of individuals. Values serve as a guide for our lifestyle and interacting with individuals. The NASW Code of Ethics is a guideline for social workers. Within the NASW Code of Ethics, there are six values. The values are in place for the social worker and their work with the client. Each value benefits the individuals regardless of color, sex, religious belief or sexual orientation. As social workers, we should practice our professional values. If we, as social workers, fail to believe in the values the client will suffer. As social workers, we must follow and obey the Code of Ethics.

This essay serves two purposes. The first purpose of this essay is to express the ability to apply social concepts and values to my own life experiences. The second purpose of this essay is to show that I have a clear understanding of the social work values and ethics.

Value: Service

Psychology Paper on the Movie 50 First Dates

Psychology Paper on the Movie 50 First Dates

In the movie “50 First Dates”, Lucy Whitmore is involved in a horrible car accident which causes severe brain damage. The brain damage causes Lucy to suffer from short-term memory loss. This accident damaged her temporal lobe; more specifically, her hippocampal region. This area of the brain is crucial in forming new memories. The movie accurately demonstrated characteristics that would be found in someone with damage to the hippocampal region.
Lucy wakes up every day believing it is October 13th, 2002 which is her father’s birthday. October 13th was the day she and her father got in a car accident in town. Ever since then, she wakes up, remembering everything up to the point of the accident but nothing that has happened since then. Lucy’s belief that it is still October 13th causes her to accomplish her daily tasks that she had planned for that day. Every night when she goes to bed, “her slate is wiped clean”, as stated in the movie and the next morning she starts all over.

Psychology Paper on the Movie 50 First Dates

Psychology Paper on the Movie 50 First Dates

In the movie “50 First Dates”, Lucy Whitmore is involved in a horrible car accident which causes severe brain damage. The brain damage causes Lucy to suffer from short-term memory loss. This accident damaged her temporal lobe; more specifically, her hippocampal region. This area of the brain is crucial in forming new memories. The movie accurately demonstrated characteristics that would be found in someone with damage to the hippocampal region.
Lucy wakes up every day believing it is October 13th, 2002 which is her father’s birthday. October 13th was the day she and her father got in a car accident in town. Ever since then, she wakes up, remembering everything up to the point of the accident but nothing that has happened since then. Lucy’s belief that it is still October 13th causes her to accomplish her daily tasks that she had planned for that day. Every night when she goes to bed, “her slate is wiped clean”, as stated in the movie and the next morning she starts all over.

Motivation and Self-Worth - How Do These Play Together Hand in Hand: Discussion on the Study by Psychology Professor Martin V. Covington at Berkley University

Motivation and Self-Worth - How Do These Play Together Hand in Hand: Discussion on the Study by Psychology Martin V. Covington at Berkley University

Motivation and self-worth; how do these play together hand in hand? Martin V. Covington, a psychology professor at the Berkley University answered this question and many more in a study he conducted in 1984 with a group of elementary students. This study was then published in the Elementary School Journal. Martin V. Covington conducted his studies on motivation and self-worth to see if he could implicate his research into the classroom. His self-worth theory assumes that a great part of classroom achievements come from a student’s own personal value or self-worth. Ones’ personal value is said to come from a number of different factors. For example; ones’ ability to do something and do it well will result in that individual having a high self-worth or personal value.

Paper on the Roles Food Can Take in Literature and Films

Paper on the Roles Food Can Take in Literature and Films

From the materials we discussed in class, I got a impression of the roles food can take in literature and films. Unlike other objects that also can be carriers of character’s thought, food brings culture and resonance in thought to the process. The desire to delicious things is shared among all mankind. So food is an easy medium to communicate to audience in film and literature. Among all the genres we have looked at, documentary and melodrama are the ones I think particularly good for advocating stances on.

Paper on the Article Does an Accent Trigger Racial Abuse

Paper on the Article Does an Accent Trigger Racial Abuse

In all multi-cultural societies variations in race can cause confrontation. This stems from prejudice. The word 'prejudice' derives from the Latin word pre-judicium, literally meaning 'pre-judgment'. In Rome, governing laws differed between the patricians (the upper-class) and the plebeians (the lower-classes) The 'pre-judgment' was a judicial examination, held prior to the real trial, to determine first the social status of litigants. This often meant that long before the actual trial the outcome was established by the class-based "prejudice". (Young, 1946).

How Rationality Leads to Sub-Optimal Outcomes

How Rationality Leads to Sub-Optimal Outcomes

Human rationality. The exercise of reason, the unique capacity human beings possess to make sense of things, to establish and verify facts and to justify their beliefs and actions. Labelled as ‘homo economicus’ or ‘economic man’, the concept of humans as rational beings goes further than simply our ability to reason: it depicts humans as self-interested actors who have the ability to maximise their desired outcomes and minimise their costs. Comparing the costs and benefits of an action is known as rational choice theory and a rational human being is one that weighs up these potential outcomes and elects the decision that best optimises his chance to pursue his goals, or more bluntly put, his selfish interests.

Essay on How Useful Abraham Maslow's Theory of Motivation in Understanding and Predicting Behaviour at Work

Essay on How Useful Abraham Maslow's Theory of Motivation in Understanding and Predicting Behaviour at Work

Motivation has been a hot topic for debate since the 1930’s, even though it was not considered a respectable pursuit until much later (Locke and Latham 2002). In the past it was believed that employees would simply motivate themselves, however Locke and Latham have now proved that when people are asked to do their best it is not always the case that they do so (2002). Managers and supervisors now take the reins of motivation. However, even if your employer gives you everything you want, you may still be demotivated – satisfied perhaps, but not motivated. Motivation is now a very powerful tool in an organisation, and if a manager can effectively motivate staff he should not only increase productivity, but also decrease staff turnover and sick days thus making any company more profitable. Theorists gave rise to two different types of motivation theories. Content theories like Maslow’s needs hierarchy, that focuses on what motivates individuals; and process theories where the emphasis is on the actual process of motivation.

The Prevalence of Eating Disorders - A Review of the Literature

The Prevalence of Eating Disorders - A Review of the Literature

Eating disorders date all the way back to the late 1800’s when doctors in England first discovered anorexia, even the ancient Greeks involved themselves in bulimia. As eating disorders date way back, they are still around today more than ever. Roughly 24 million people of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder in the U.S. (ANAD). With all of these people suffering from different forms of eating disorders, extensive amounts of research has been conducted to answer the following questions:
1. What are the different types of eating disorders?
2. What causes eating disorders?
3. Are there any treatments for eating disorders?
Eating disorders are psychological, and for a patient to be cured he or she must understand the complications of their disorder and be willing to change themselves.

What Are the Different Types of Eating Disorders?

Theory to Practice Paper: Organization Attitudes and Behavior

Theory to Practice Paper: Organization Attitudes and Behavior

I will use my father’s career for this assignment because he plays two roles in the work world: he is a doctor in a public hospital and he owns a business with a colleague. My father is a specialist in Plastic Surgery and he is a partner in a Medical Clinic, which he is the management also.
He works for the city in the public hospital for over twenty years and as a private doctor and manager at the clinic for over fifteen years. He has his own office, just as his partner and they have three more offices that they rent for other doctors. At the Clinic there’s also a dressing room, an exam room and an X-Ray room. To cover all the topics proposed in Chapter 10: Organizational Attitudes and Behavior, I will use the information that I collected when I worked there in 2007 as a secretary and what I heard from him over the years.

Job satisfaction: the degree of pleasure an employee derives from his job, p. 302.

Stress Support for Post-Secondary Students

Stress Support for Post-Secondary Students

Being a college student in the 21st century is full of exciting new challenges that can help them become who they want to be. With these exciting challenges comes the pressure to succeed, accompanied with the financial burden. Without the proper coping techniques the college experience may not be a pleasant one. If stress that is introduced or intensified by post secondary education is not dealt with properly, students may experience a cycle of difficulties. This can include long and short term mental and physical health problems, academic decline and a degenerative cycle of stress. In order to avoid this cycle it is important for post-secondary schools to have the stress-coping resources available to students anytime they are required.

Evaluating the Extent to Which Early Childhood Settings Can Effectively Protect and Safeguard Children in Relation to the Wider Multi Agency Approach

Evaluating the Extent to Which Early Childhood Settings Can Effectively Protect and Safeguard Children in Relation to the Wider Multi Agency Approach

Safeguarding and children protection play big roles when caring for children. Safeguarding may be considered as the process of protecting children from any abuse or neglect, preventing impairment of their health and development, and furthermore ensuring they are able to grow up in circumstances which are safe, enabling them to be provided with effective that enables children to have the optimum life chances and enter their adulthood successfully (Safeguarding Children, 2008). Child protection is a part of safeguarding and for promoting the welfare of children. This refers to the activity which is carried out to protect any specific children which are suffering, or are at any risk of suffering significant harm. (HM Gov, 2006).

Short Essay on The Effects of Technology on Families

Short Essay on The Effects of Technology on Families

Technology today is changing the way we do everything. The way we communicate, travel, market, import and export, everything. The past 20 years have seen an explosion of technological advancement unlike anything since the renaissance. People can talk to anyone, anywhere in the blink of an eye. We can cross over oceans in minutes. Technology even allows us to live completely isolated. Weaponry has advanced making war a whole new thing. Ideas can be transferred instantaneously making life incredibly easy and allowing people total comfort at home. The internet itself created millions of business opportunities and jobs, changing the economy drastically, but, what has technology done to families?

Interpretations of Violence in Films - Film Review: Road to Perdition

Interpretations of Violence in Films - Film Review: Road to Perdition

The Psychological Effects of Authoritarianism in Dance

The Psychological Effects of Authoritarianism in Dance

Communication Essay - Is There a Relationship Between Communication Breakdown and Teenage Suicides in Hong Kong?

Communication Essay - Is There a Relationship Between Communication Breakdown and Teenage Suicides in Hong Kong?

A study reported in the S.C.M.P 22nd September 2001, entitled “Suicide Biggest Killer of Youth” showed a rise in the general suicide rate in Hong Kong. The study also found that the suicide rate among young people, particularly between the ages of 15 to 24, increased 39 per cent, from 9.6 to 13.3 per 100,00 people between 1981 and 1999. Although the rate was not particularly high compared with other countries, some experts believed that the increasing suicide rate is a sign that young people in Hong Kong are experiencing many problems, especially social, financial and psychological ones. Because young people are easily influenced by the media, they may think suicide is a way to solve these problems.

Grandma Died Again: Goal Orientation and Excuses in the Classroom

Grandma Died Again: Goal Orientation and Excuses in the Classroom

Introduction

If you don't want to do something, one excuse is as good as another - Yiddish Proverb

As long as there have been college students and teachers there have been assignments and reasons for not completing those assignments on time. Certainly most college professors have experienced the quandary of what to do about missed assignments and their accompanying excuses, either while designing the class and the syllabus or during interactions with individual students. Should excuses be accepted and make-up examinations and assignments be developed? Should efforts be made to ascertain the validity of the claims? While the literature on excuse making in college students is not a large one, several important factors have been explored in the last decade.

My Experience in the National Honor Society

High school can be one of the biggest learning experiences of any ones life. You learn who your friends are, what’s important in life and how to make the best of any situation. High school students have the pressure of schoolwork, adolescence and home life to focus on. However, some students who excel in those areas also stand out in the areas of scholarship, leadership, character and service. Those four specific subjects are apart of the National Honor Society organization. This organization is used to show people that there are students who care about themselves, but also about the people in their community. A handful of students from each high school around the country are chosen each year to submit an essay, along with other forms filled out, to be accepted into the National Honor Society. I am honored to be one of those students in the handful from Union Springs High School to be chosen to write an essay to the National Honor Society comity at our school through this specific criteria.

Gender Roles - Biological and Socialization Factors Debated

Gender Roles - Biological and Socialization Factors Debated

Walking by a hospital nursery and looking in it can be seen that the babies do not look very different from each other. The one thing that can be seen: pink or blue hats. At birth, a child has a sex, but based on that it will be taught different ways to function in society throughout its life. The apparent differences between men and women other than physical ones are learned rather than innate. The nature versus nurture debate is one that will probably never be settled. Many people do believe that nature is the reason children grow up the way they do, but none of these ideas have been absolutely proven to be the reason behind male and female gender roles. There are many things in life that will help socialize the child to act either masculine or feminine. Parents, media, teachers, and peers are important socializing agents for teaching the young their gender roles. Men and women will learn how to act in relationships. Roles of men and women have changed over the last century, and it has been shown that different cultures have different ideas about gender roles.

Worldview Paper - My Beliefs

Worldview Paper - My Beliefs

Introduction:
This paper should be an interesting one to write. I know that there are some areas where my beliefs are still being formed and I feel like those areas are going to be tougher to write. I am interested in finding out where those areas lie. I do not think that I am going to be able to get out the required number of pages since I am still learning and know that I will struggle with some areas. This worldview paper is going to be a lesson in itself and I am ready to get started.

I. Epistemology:
I believe that there is such thing as religious knowledge. I think that there is a lot to be learned from the Bible and through the stories that Jesus has left for us to learn. There is knowledge for us to learn from His life if we choose to sit down and allow the message to be heard. To me, going to church and listening to the preacher tell the story from the bible or teach from a certain scripture gives me religious knowledge. I seem to always learn something new when I go into a service with an open mind.

Wages and Education - Identifying the Hypothesis of Three Separate Articles

Wages and Education - Identifying the Hypothesis of Three Separate Articles

The following paper is identifying the hypothesis of three separate articles. The selected articles in this essay are related to wages of individuals. The first article analysis is titled “Human Capital vs. Signaling Explanations of Wages” in the article the authors explain the differences of sorting models and human capital models in the work force. The second article is “Difference in wage levels among metropolitan areas: Less-educated workers in the United States” the article describes how five characteristics affect the wages of individuals in the United States. After identifying the hypothesis of the articles the next step is to test the hypothesis using T-test, ANOVA, and chi square. At the end of the testing the students interpret the results.
”Human Capital vs. Signalling Explantions of Wages.”

Application of Psychtoolbox for MATLAB in Experimental Psychology

Application of Psychtoolbox for MATLAB in Experimental Psychology

Abstract: MATLAB stands for “Matrix Laboratory”, which is a numerical computing software environment and fourth-generation programming language, and Psychtoolbox (i.e. Psychophysics Toolbox) is a set of MATLAB and GNU Octave functions for basic psychology research, especially in vision research. With the assistance of MATLAB and Psychtoolbox, not only the designing and processing of an experiment could be significantly facilitated, but also the data statics and analyze. The two provide an effective method of software solution for the control of behavioral experiments. This paper proposed to make a brief overview of how MATLAB and Psychtoolbox work, as well their diverse functions and application fields of research. Also a comparison of MATLAB with other software frequently used is presented.

I. INTRODUCTION

Detrimental Aspects of Prison for Incarcerated Mothers

Detrimental Aspects of Prison for Incarcerated Mothers

Introduction:

Stigma: Conceptualization, Cross-Cultural Comparisons, and the Stigma of Sexual Minorities

Stigma: Conceptualization, Cross-Cultural Comparisons, and the Stigma of Sexual Minorities

Stigma Defined
Stigmatization has been referred to by Crocker, Major, and Steele (1998) as an essential challenge to an individual’s basic humanity. They explain that “a person who is stigmatized is a person whose social identity, or membership in some social category, calls into question his or her full humanity; the person is devalued, spoiled, or flawed in the eyes of others” (p. 504). Stigma, a term whose English usage dates back to the 1300’s, is derived from the same Greek roots as the verb “to stick”, and originally referred to a type of tattoo, or mark, that was cut or burned into the skin of criminals, slaves, or traitors in order to visibly identify them as blemished or morally polluted persons (Herek, 2004). These individuals were to be avoided or shunned, particularly in the public sphere (Healthline Network Inc., 2007). Stigma has been linked to poor mental health, physical illness, academic underachievement, infant mortality, low social status, poverty, and reduced access to housing, education, and jobs (Allison,1998; Braddock & McPartland, 1987; Clark et al., 1999).

Lack of Prevention Programs for Gender Identity Disorder

In the summer of 2008, Angie Zapata, an 18 year old transgendered girl was brutally murdered in her Colorado home by a man by the name of, Allen Andrade. According to information contained within a police affidavit, Andrade, who had bludgeoned Angie to death, first with his fists and then with a fire extinguisher, commented to police, “I thought I had killed it”, referring to the moment that he noticed Angie gasp for breath, before he struck her with the cold steel, one last time. In the spring of 2009, a Colorado jury convicted Andrade of first degree murder and a bias related crime, representing “the first time that a state hate-crime statute had resulted in a conviction in a transgendered persons murder” (CNN, 2009).

Learning and Memory - Work Performed as an Instructional Coordinator Working With Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Discorders

Learning and Memory - Work Performed as an Instructional Coordinator Working With Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Discorders

Chapter 1

The Pervasive Influence of Intolerance: Stigma, Life Satisfaction, and Generativity in the Gay and Lesbian Community

The Pervasive Influence of Intolerance: Stigma, Life Satisfaction, and Generativity in the Gay and Lesbian Community

Abstract

Summary and Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial for Internet-Based Treatment of Social Phobia

Summary and Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial for Internet-Based Treatment of Social Phobia

As indicated by Andersson et al. (2006), the ever-expanding applications of the World Wide Web have provided mental health professionals with a host of alternative means by which to provide services to individuals in need. Following from empirical evidence supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral, internet-based treatments for psychological disorders, Andersson and his colleagues have sought to develop and test one such application for the treatment of social phobia, a potentially life-debilitating disorder. The researchers’ primary objective is to provide further evidentiary support for the use of internet-based techniques to treat social phobia, essentially transcending the geographic, economic and psycho-social obstacles to treatment that some individuals may encounter.

Important Concepts and Techniques of Psychodrama

Important Concepts and Techniques of Psychodrama

Psychodrama is created and developed by J. L. Moreno, is a primarily group therapy approach in which the client acts out or dramatizes past, present, or anticipated life situations and roles in an attempt to gain deeper understanding, achieve catharsis, and develop behavioral skills. It can help client get in contact with unrecognized and unexpressed feelings, to provide a channel for a full expression of these feelings and attitudes, and to encourage new behavior. It is designed to facilitate the expression of feelings in spontaneous and dramatic way through the use of role playing.T It is processing without any script before enactment. In proceeding the psychodrama, five elements are essential and exist: The stage, the protagonist ( A person who is the subject of the psychodrama and its principle actor), the director ( A person who will use his professional skill to facilitate the psychodrama), the auxiliary ego ( Someone who assist in enacting some role ) and the audience. Each one has its own role and responsibility in the psychodrama.

Workplace Communication Issue

Workplace Communication Issue

Communication in the workplace could be interpreted as a way of conversing between two or more employees. It could also be understood as non-verbal gestures between co-workers. The simple fact is that there are many different types of communication in the workplace. One could be a simple verbal conversation. Another could be an electronic email sent out to the entire company. Either of these can or could bring issues to a conflict as well as a resolution to a problem. Communication in the work place is, properly done, a vital role to success.

Intercultural communication in the work place is, or can be, difficult. Many situations deem a representative from one culture to converse with a member of another culture. Often the communications go smooth with a positive outcome. But, other times there is, or can be, a tension between the two cultures for any of the numerous possible reasons. In the days of political correctness a person can be afraid to hurt someone’s feelings or offend a person from another culture. Although communicating with other cultures can be heard, it is extremely important to succeed in business.

To Be or Not to Be Married

To Be or Not to Be . . . Married?

What does it take to have a happy life? Is it important to be able to share important life events with someone? Is a better life one that is shared, or one in which each person is free to follow his or her dreams? A lot of people think that the only way to live a fulfilling life is by finding a mate, by becoming part of a couple. But is this the path to fulfillment? Or is this the path to a lot of sacrifice and compromise? Other people think that the best way to lead a fulfilling life is by staying single. But is this the path to fulfillment? Or is a single life just a path to boredom and ultimately loneliness? Some people may not think it is necessary to find a spouse in order to live a happy life, but those people are wrong. If you project into the future, it is easy to see that in order to lead a happy life, everyone should get married.

Freud's Psychosexual Development in My Life and Health Promotion Strategies

Freud's Psychosexual Development in My Life and Health Promotion Strategies

Abstract

Freud’s theory of psychosexual development has five stages which are prominent stages of development but certain things like my upbringing, culture and primary caregivers could affect certain stages. The stages are the oral, anus, phallic, and the genital. Exercising, reducing stress, smoking and eating are things that are affecting my health at this time and I will try and minimize my sendentary lifestyle and enhance my health promotion.

Nature of Logic and Perception Paper on Slavery

Nature of Logic and Perception Paper on Slavery

It seems like forever ago when it’s talked about which makes it seem even more unrealistic. I remember when I was just learning about it, I was naïve to the true facts. Slavery, here in the United States, “land of the free” how was I to believe that such awful things could happen to honest people. Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons known as slaves are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labor or services (Wikipedia, 2008). This slavery happened in the United States between the years of 1914-1941 (Wikipedia, 2008). Black where held as slaves by white Americans and where demanded to do harsh labor either in fields of plantations or American family households. Though this slavery lasted for many many years they never stopped fighting for their freedom.

Negative Effects of the “Positive” Model Minority Image

Negative Effects of the “Positive” Model Minority Image

Television Violence and It's Effects on Children

Television Violence and It's Effects on Children

What is the most violent act they have seen on television? It could have been a massacre, a fatal explosion or a cartoon. Whatever it may be, the probabilities of those images being imprinted in memory are substantial. As mature adults, the violent imagery may not cause any damage. Reed (2001), “The U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary produced a report entitled "Children, Violence, and the Media" in September of 1999. This report summarized its findings with a number of statistics, including the fact that "by age 18 an American child will have seen 16,000 simulated murders and 200,000 acts of violence” (para. 2). It is unbelievable that these images will not create an impression on the minds of the children who watch them. On July 2, 1999, in a small community in Dallas, Texas a seven year old boy was accidently killed by his brother while attempting the “clothesline” maneuver as seen on TV. More important, it was seen while watching the popular wrestling matches on television. This opened the nation’s eyes to the fact that children’s exposure to television violence results in aggressive behaviors.

Eye Movement Densensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) : A Treatment Modality for Behavioral Problems - A Dissertation Proposal

EYE MOVEMENT DENSENSITIZATION AND REPROCESSING (EMDR):
A TREATMENT MODALITY FOR BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS

A Dissertation Proposal

i
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate School of Argosy University/Sarasota
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Counseling Psychology

EYE MOVEMENT DENSENSITIZATION AND REPROCESSING (EMDR):
A TREATMENT MODALITY FOR BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS

Department: School of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences

Diverse Nature of Psychology

Diverse Nature of Psychology

Psychology is a science that discusses theories on the mind and behaviors and consists of many sub-disciplines and theories[K1]. Industrial/Organizational psychology, abnormal psychology, and clinical psychology recognize different areas of human life and behavior and discuss ways to improve the workplace, quality of life, and relationships. Each sub-discipline explains ways to keep a client motivated through [K2]working on thought patterns and behaviors. Various theories provide explanation and research bases for a psychologist for referral purposes. Measurable research data relates psychology to other scientific fields and gives the field more validity as a science.

Fields of Psychology and Application of Theory

Discovering Identity Through Various Influences in Personal Experiences

Discovering Identity Through Various Influences in Personal Experiences

Different people discover their identity in various ways through influences in their lives and personal experiences. Nancy Mairs for example identifies herself as a cripple stating “I choose this word to name me” (231). Another writer, Shelby Steele, characterizes himself as a “black professional” (366). However, all of these descriptions refer to the out ward appearance. Identity is extensively more that a person’s physique. It also includes personal values such as faith and character. Some people find their identity in their religion by following the set of moral codes. Others discover their identity in doing good works and helping others. Philanthropy and spirituality are not given to an individual. These actions, however, do contribute to the formation of a person’s identity. A person chooses to pursue a giving lifestyle, therefore choosing his identity and this “is where creation was begun” (Momaday 265). Consequently an identity is created, not given.

Strategy for Integration

Strategy for Integration

Any calculus student knows that integration poses a larger challenge than differentiation. Any run-of-the-mill student can find the differentiation formula that makes himself stand out: wear your hair some weird way, listen to some exotic group, or pierce yourself. Similarly, finding the differentiation formula we should apply to find a derivative function presents an obvious task.

The Four Types of Cognitive Schemata

The Four Types of Cognitive Schemata

In the perception process we must select, organize and interpret that which we see, hear or feel. Constructivism is the idea that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called cognitive schemata. There are four types of these schemata, prototypes, personal construct, stereotypes, and scripts which we use to make sense of phenomena. One or all of these tools can be used to organize our perceptions in a meaningful way.

The first of the schemata is known as a prototype. A prototype defines the clearest or most representative examples of some category. It is an ideal or best example, of a particular category. Stating that a particular person would make the ideal friend, or that someone is the perfect worker, are both means of prototyping. We classify people by the category that most represents them. Then we consider how well they measure up.

Study of Personality Theories - Understanding the Role of Nature and Nurture in Personality Development

Study of Personality Theories - Understanding the Role of Nature and Nurture in Personality Development

My study of personality theories has helped develop my understanding of personality in a number of ways. There are two broad categories of personality theory – nature which are the biological process, genes and processes that are innate to human beings. On the flipside there is nurture which encompasses the environment around us, things like socio-economic status, our family, the schools we attended, our friends etc. Within both categories, there are interactionists that side with one theory but don’t dispute that the other theory helps explain personality; and there are other theorists who entirely reject the other viewpoint and advocate their theory as the only possible explanation for personality.

Different Character Attributes and Their Effect on Forming Impressions

Different Character Attributes and Their Effect on Forming Impressions

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment was to discover whether presence of the words “warm” or “cold” have an influence on participants’ first impressions of people. Participants rated their own personal attributes and the attributes of a fictitious person. Based on the condition group, participants were told that the person was either “warm,” “cold,” or neither “warm” nor “cold.” Ratings of the person were affected by participants’ condition group. Effects were significant only with regards to ratings social traits of the person. Perceived liking of the person was significantly affected by participant’s condition group. And, participants gave a higher rating for liking when there was perceived similarity with the person. These results were consistent with findings of previous studies by Asch and Kelley.

Different Character Attributes and Their Effect on Forming Impressions

Memory Deficits and Memory Surfeits: Differential Cognitive Consequences of Tokenism for Tokens and Observers By Charles G. Lord and Delia S. Saenz

Memory Deficits and Memory Surfeits: Differential Cognitive Consequences of Tokenism for Tokens and Observers By Charles G. Lord and Delia S. Saenz

“Tokens” are:
Underrepresented people who are often the only member of their social category (AKA: outgroup members)
The only people of their kind in an otherwise homogeneous group
Rarely granted equal status to that of majority group members
Usually assigned fewer and less important job responsibilities
Tend to receive lower salaries than non-tokens

Examples of “Tokenism”:
A university making small allowances by admitting a minimum number of minority students
A company hiring one or two women to fill low-level positions

Observers typically view tokens as people who stand out. Therefore, observers may remember more of what tokens do and say (and they may evaluate them based on their own stereotypes and prejudices).

Purpose of Study:
To explore the less frequently researched way that tokens are victimized:
There may be a possible bias in which tokens are evaluated unfairly (possibly due to negative stereotypes about token’s social category)

Literature Summary on the Article Happy Hour Featured in the Psychology Today Magazine

Literature Summary - Psychology Today Article "Happy Hour"

Psychology Today is a magazine focused on dealing with mental health topics related to emotional wellbeing, relationship/family issues, and other more serious psychological conditions. The writers of this adult magazine have extensive expertise in the field of psychology, both clinically and academically. Many articles in Psychology Today are written by, and rely upon information provided by, doctors, Ph.D.'s, and other trained professionals in the field. This magazine seems genuinely dedicated to promoting sound, reliable, scientific information of a psychological nature.

Since psychology is the science of the human mind and behavior, this magazine clearly fits into the category of life sciences. The selected article, “Happy Hour,” in the February 2005 edition of Psychology Today, is about the human quest for finding true happiness. Since happiness is a fundamental human emotion, this article’s topic is also directly related to life sciences.

Case Study - Can Holding a Student Back a Grade be Beneficial or Hurt in the Long Run?

Case Study

Pertinent Information

Student 1 is a six-year-old, Caucasian male who comes from an upper-middle class family in Charlotte, North Carolina. He is the youngest of three boys in his family. Student 1 has just turned six, as the day of this clinical interview was also his birthday. His mother decided to hold Student 1 out of school last year, so he has just entered kindergarten this fall. The extra year in pre-school seems to have put Student 1 in a good position to excel in school this year, as he is quite intelligent and mature for his age and grade level. Student 1’s physical development is also above the mean for his age and gender, according to the National Center for Health Statistics and National Center for Chronic Disease (chart included). Student 1’s height (48 inches) places him within the 95th percentile; his weight (53 lbs.) places him within the 90th percentile. Overall, he seems to be a healthy, happy, well-adjusted kindergartner.

Cognitive Development

Task 1 – Conservation of Discontinuous Quantity

A Sociology and Psychology Look at the Nenagh Community Reparation Project and how it would Benefit the United States Judicial System

Criminology

Sociologists and psychologists alike all over the world have always tried to answer why people commit crimes. Throughout the world governments have their own ways of dealing with offenders. Programs are set in place and others are in development in order to figure out what deters criminals from being offenders. Ireland has a program set in place called Nenagh Community Reparation Project. This program is based around the victim and offers closure instead of concentrating on punishing the offender only. The way the program is developed it allows reparation to victims and adequate punishment for the offender without having to serve any time in jail. Bringing this program to the United States would definitely be of great help in certain crimes and I will offer more insight in regards to my beliefs on this subject.

Are Different Personality Traits in Young Women More Suceptible to Body Dissatisfaction When Exposed to ‘Normal’ Body Ideals of Female Media Images?

Are Different Personality Traits in Young Women More Suceptible to Body Dissatisfaction When Exposed to ‘Normal’ Body Ideals of Female Media Images?

Dissertation

Contents
Abstract
Introduction
Method
Results
References
Abstract
Aims/Objectives
Method
Results
Conclusions

Introduction

In recent years there has been an increasing trend within fashion magazines, billboards and television advertisement displaying images of young super slim women, who have been airbrushed to unrecognisable limits. The media portray women’s bodies which are not only seen as ideal but as the norm (Dionne, Davis, Fox & Gurevich, 1995). This thin ideal is conveyed and reinforced by many social influences including; family peers, schools, athletics, businesses and healthcare professionals (Levine & Smolak, 1996, 1998; Smolak & Levine, 1996; Thompson & Stice, 2001, as cited in Groesz, Levine & Murnen, 2002). The average gap between women’s body size and their ideal is now larger than ever before (Stice, Mazotti, Krebs & Martin, 1999, as cited in Tiggemann & McGill, 2004).

Defining a Universal Measure of Progress

Defining a Universal Measure of Progress

Progress is an interesting process, suggesting beneficial advancement of something with respect to a point in time. To define a universal measure of progress with respect to mankind, one would have to first look at what are basic necessities for all human beings. To define what the basic human needs are, one must examine what is needed for human survival. All human beings need food, clean water, and the ability to cope, maintain their existence, with their environment. Survival also implies that people reproduce and carry on generation to generation. Now that the basic human needs, a universal definition of progress can be ascertained. A universal measure of progress for mankind is the beneficial advancement of society’s abilities to meet the basic human needs for their individual societies. Now that a definition for a universal measure of progress has been established, one must find out how to evaluate progress in any given society.

Investigating Age Discrimination in Today's Society

Investigating Age Discrimination in Today's Society

This essay is investigating age discrimination in todays society. It will focus on the key theories of the issues raised regarding age discrimination in the media eye towards women in Britain today.. Key issues at stake?

Are Management Skills Behavioural?

According to Whetten, D & Cameron, K (p8 pp1) management skills are in fact behavioural. They are not personality attributes or stylistic tendencies. Management skills consist of identifiable sets of actions that individuals perform and that lead to certain outcomes. Skills can be observed by others, unlike attributes that are purely mental or are embedded in personality. Whereas people with different styles and personalities may apply the skills differently, there are, nevertheless, a core set of observable attributes in effective skill performance that are common across a range of individual differences.

Second management skills are controllable. The performance of these behaviours is under the control of the individual. Skills can be consciously demonstrated, practiced, improved or restrained by individuals themselves.

Third management skills are developable. Performance can improve. Unlike IQ or certain personality or temperament attributes that remain relatively constant throughout life, individuals can improve their competency in skill performance through practise and feedback.

Fourth, management skills are interrelated and overlapping.

Behavioral Psychology as Discussed by John B Watson, Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner

Behaviorism

Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psycology, was founded by John B. Watson and later contributed by Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner. Behaviorism is a personality theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. It also states that all things that organisms do, including acting, thinking and feeling, can and should be regarded as behaviors.Another element is basically saying what happens to you as a child follows you throughout your life. It seeks to identify observable, measurable laws that could explain all of human behavior. Behaviorism has two major types of conditioning; Operant Conditioning and Classical Conditioning. These theories show that we learn many behaviors just because they have been reinforced by positive consequences and assosiations.

The Importance of the Preschool Years in Children

Preschool Years

The preschool years are an intresting time for children. This is the time when they learn how to make choices for themselves and feel good about the choices they make. Thier style of thinking and learning are based on the way things look. Adults play a very important role in helping kids take action and explore thier surroundings through physical development, thinking and learing, expressing feelings, communications and awareness of others.

Society and Change - Individuals Using Authority to Push Others into Submission

Society and Change

In today’s society there are many social norms and situations that are broken by individuals that make up a group of people that is outside the box of normality. We as a normal society view those individuals as outsiders or criminals that don’t abide by the same governing ethical laws as the rest of the”normal” population. Many times individuals use his or her authority to push others into submission. There are many examples in today’s current events that reflect this type of behavior.

The conflict perspective of sociology is reflected in the teacher-student relationship in a number of ways and situations. The power the teacher holds over the student seeks to make him or her conform to what the teacher wants. Opinions or dissenting scenarios are not solicited or encouraged in this type of situation.

Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts Paper

Organizational Behavior Terminology and Concepts Paper

Many companies are now looking at their employees and their interactions in a different way. New studies show that improved employee development and communication can and will have a direct impact on the success and longevity of the company. Many companies are using focus groups to address such issues as; Organizational culture, Diversity, Business ethics, Change management, Communication among employees, and many others. By improving in
these key areas, companies hope to expand and grow in ways not normally considered in the past. Can simple concepts such as these mentioned actually change a company for the better? Can improving on employee relations open previously closed doors in the workplace? One of the focus group point Organizational behavior. According to Webster’s online, “organizational behavior is concerned with identifying and managing the attitudes and actions of

Sociology Perspective Paper: Heroes Season One - Good vs Evil

Sociology Perspective Paper

“Save the Cheerleader Save the World” is one of the most popular catch phrases used today. This comes from a serial sage called Heroes. This saga is about many different people from all over the world discovering that they have superpowers and trying to deal with how this change will affect their lives. This cast is made up of many different people with many different backgrounds.

How are People Motivated to Work?

How are People Motivated to Work?

Introduction

What is the most important asset that a business may have? The answer to this is usually considered and quoted not as capital, its site, or any other, but as ‘labour’. A workforce that is praised, feels safe, valued, and secure, is proved to be a lot more efficient than one that doesn’t. Firms whose workers are motivated for reasons other than pay and who enjoy their work, are almost certainly going to be a lot better and more efficient than businesses whose aren’t. Among other things, this is attributed to by illness, lateness, and general absenteeism being tenfold lower.

Businesses can motivate workers to do a good job by offering various possible inducements and incentives. A well-motivated worker has conspicuously defined targets and will take the appropriate action that they believe will achieve these goals. So, although money is arguably the biggest incentive, there is a lot more to motivation. Businesses should provide ways for workers to succeed, set-out a structure for promotion, and show that they value their workforce.

Theories of Motivation

Sociology Paper – Gender in Sports

Sociology Paper – Gender in Sports

Sports is a place where the “truth” about men and women is demonstrated.
Sports are sex-segregated and that segregation is defended viciously.
Notice that the gender binary is an ideological function of sport – not a reality.
The vast majority of people to whom sport is important are primarily spectators. These spectators are primarily men. And these men are no more or less athletic than the vast majority of women.

In Michael Messner’s article, Becoming 100% Straight, he talks about his own experience and the experience of Olympian Tom Waddell.
It was important to them try to be the appropriate kind of man. Messner and Waddell could prove it on the sports field and by denigrating other men and women. Importantly, they knew if they didn’t do it, they’d be targets.

Athlete as an identity
Like gender, “athlete” is an important, formative and enduring part of who you are.
It is something you “do,” NOT a something injected into you that you “have.”
It shapes what you expect of yourself and how others relate to you and it interacts with other identities (gender, race, class etc)

Men as athletes

A Review of Adoption and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Adopted and Non-adopted Children’s IQ and School Performance

A Review of Adoption and Cognitive Development: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Adopted and Non-adopted Children’s IQ and School Performance.

A meta-analysis of multiple studies was done by van Ijzendoorn, Juffer and Klein Poelhuis (2005) to determine if cognitive development in children is affected by adoption. Cognitive development is “the emergence of the ability to understand the world” (Schacter, Gilbert and Wegner, 2008, p. 412). There have been studies done that show behavioural problems occurring as a result of adoption and van Ijzendoorn et al. wanted to see if cognitive development was also affected. Van Ijzendoorn et al. looked at studies comparing cognitive development of adopted children to children who stayed where the adopted children came from. They also compared cognitive development of adopted children to their non-biological siblings and peers in their new environment (van Ijzendoorn et al.). Cognitive development was measured by IQ and school performance (van Ijzendoorn et al.).

Summary of an Empirical Journal Article

A Summary of an Empirical Journal Article

Summary

There have been many studies that have attempted to correlate the relationship between maternal employment in the early years of a child’s life or a child’s time in day care to child development. Some studies have shown that children in an extensive amount of daycare have negative developmental effects while others have shown the opposite (Barglow, Contera, Kavesh & Vaughn, 1998). To further develop theory and determine whether the amount of hours of maternal employment during the child’s first year has an influence on this subject matter Barglow et al. (1998) conducted a follow-up study on 92 6-7 year old children that were earlier studied at age one, who spent time in high quality daycare at their home. Barlgow et al. focused their study on evaluating peer competence and problem behaviour measured through laboratory play and child psychological tests. Additionally Barlgow et al. attempted to see if child’s attachment classification at an early age relates to peer competence and if this is affected by maternal employment.

Psychology Paper - Critically Evaluate the Idea that Increasing Self Esteem is Associated with Better Academic Preformance

Critically evaluate the idea that increasing self esteem is associated with better academic performance.

Abstract

In past studies the idea that self esteem being associated with academic performance has been evident. Self esteem is a personality variable that could be expected to influence a person’s evaluation of their work (Thomas L. 1973). This personality trait gained from their lifestyle and surroundings can alter an individual’s perception of the type of work that they should be achieving, in this case the academic performances that they should be achieving. There are several key examples of increased self esteem being factor when achieving better academic performances, the public and private school scene in Australia, the African American academic performances and the academic performances of people of Asian decent. These examples will illustrate how an increase of self esteem can lead to a better academic performance.

The High Rates of Divorce and the Impact it has on Children

The High Rates of Divorce
What Impact does it have on Children?

The United States has the highest divorce rate in the world. Its four point nine divorces per one thousand people. Sri Lanka has one of the lowest divorce rates at one point three per one thousand people. Of all divorced people aged twenty five and older fifty five percent men and forty four percent of women have remarried. In two thousand one seventeen percent American wives were in their second marriages and three percent were in their or later marriage.

What is so Special about the Age 21?

What is so Special about the Age 21?

In today's society there is a strict law that enables nobody under the age of twenty-one to be allowed to consume any beverage that contains any amount of alcohol. Twenty-one, that is three years after you are considered an adult and are allowed to make your own decisions. That is three years after you have the right to vote and four years after you can make the choice to die for your country or not. This creates more of a problem and even more confusion among adults eighteen to twenty.

Eating Disorders - Terms, Definitions and Symptoms

Eating Disorders
Terms, Definitions and Symptoms

An eating disorder is best defined as severe disturbances in eating patterns. The three main types of eating disorders are anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating. Individuals who have an eating disorder have a tendency to eat a lot than purge or may eat too little. A popular element around all eating disorders however, is the victims have low self-esteem.

A popular question asked would be what causes an eating disorder?

A common explanation found would be - Chemicals in the brain are called neurotransmitters control how the body makes and releases hormones. People with eating disorders have very low levels of two neurotransmitters called serotonin and norepinephrine. These two search the brain pituitary glands to make and release hormones that control the bodies neuroendocrine system. This system controls emotions, physical development, memory and heart beat. When the hormone production stops, the functions start acting slower.

7 Day Personal Development Course

7 Day Personal Development Course

Day 1

Introduction

Most people want to be successful in life. You may be reading this for various reasons, but the results can all be the same - Success.

Your definition of success is influenced by many things including:
Your upbringing
Your cultural background
Your life experience
Your goals in life
The geographic location you live
Your financial situation the financial status of those around you
Your life stage

Success for everyone can mean a lot of different things, it could be more money, increased social freedom, more time with your family, becoming your own boss, or even enhancing what you are currently doing. Maybe success for you is being at home to raise your child and watching them take their first steps towards you instead of a day care provider. Success is often more about the journey and not the destination and over the next week we are excited to help you take this journey and change your life and the results you achieve forever.

Success can be yours by utilizing this 7 day course to enhance your future results; mentally, physically, spiritually, emotionally, and financially.

How has your Family History, Culture, or Environment Influenced Who you Are?

How has your Family History, Culture, or Environment Influenced Who you are?

I remember vividly the day I spent picking strawberries with my grandfather. I was twelve years old and my family had just moved back to Florida after living in Iceland for three and a half years. My Pappy was a tall, tattooed, skinny old sailor with wispy white once red-blonde hair that, in his youth, had suggested his Scotch-Irish temper. He loved beer and baseball and wouldn’t hesitate to light a fire under a wayward male cousin of mine, but that fiery temper never fell on me, I was his favorite grandchild. “Bridgette,” he’d say, “I love all my grandbabies, but from the day you were born you’ve always been my girl.” I’d always blush fiercely in response and hug him tightly. I’d missed him terribly during our tour in the land of fire and ice.

Social Psychology Terms and Definitions Paper

Social Psychology Terms and Definitions

Persuasion – How do we change other people’s attitudes?
Attitudes are learned
The process by which your attitudes change after receiving some information
Some factors are:
Pervasiveness of message
Stronger attitudes that may affect the level of persuasiveness
Commitment – People want to be faithful
Embittered – it goes along who we perceive are selves to be

Theories of Persuasion
Cognitive Response Model – persuasion depends on your responses to a message
Positive responses – will lead to attitude change
Attractive medium and timely deliver will help
Counter arguments – they can also help be persuasive
Elaboration Likelihood Model – there are two ways to change someone’s attitude
Central Route – changing attitude through thought
Motivation and Ability are needed
Peripheral Route – when were persuaded by superficial cues
If motivation and ability are needed to use the central route, the peripheral route can be used
Cognitive Dissonance – the discomfort that cause by doing or think something discrepant from your typical thoughts or behaviors
Attitude discrepant behavior – we try to justify the behavior

Are Physical Characteristics More Important Than Emotional Traits Like Willpower?

Willpower

Some people think that physical characteristics are more important than emotional traits like willpower. The quote “the difference between a successful person and others is not a lack of strength, not a lack of knowledge, but rather a lack of will” states that people need inner strength more than outer strength. I personally agree with this statement, and a number of texts do as well.

“The Glass Castle” is a memoir written by Jeannette Walls. It details her struggles though her childhood battling poverty, injuries, homelessness, and some self-debilitating parents. It took all of her willpower to just stay positive, especially with not having food more times than not. When faced with her parents actions, such as her father and mother squandering what little money they had on booze and art supplies, respectively, she stayed tough and rooted through various dumpsters in her area for an apple or two. It could not have been physical strength that kept her alive, because she was extremely malnourished.

Sexuality Gender and Power in the American Society

Sexuality, Gender and Power in the America Society

Gender inequality is an intimate inequality. Both class and race inequality are sustained with intense segregation, but gender inequality involves intense integration (for heterosexuals, at least). Gender, sexuality, and power interact.

The fact of their interconnectedness in our minds is revealed by two ideas:

First, that gender and sexual orientation are somehow related. In American society, doing gender involves doing heterosexuality. Masculinity means, in part, a sexual relationship with women. Femininity means, in part, a sexual relationship with men. In fact, gender and sexual orientation are not the same thing.

Second, that reveals the intersection of gender, sexuality, and power is the fact that we tend to think that sexual liberation for women IS women’s liberation. The relationship between sexual liberation and gender equality is our concern for today.

Our primary questions are:
How has gender inequality shaped the following?
Our very definition of sex?
How we understand our sexual bodies?
Our idea of sexual liberation?
How we think of ourselves sexually?
Our sexual interactions?

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